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1. The main job of DNA is to _______ information.
2. Which one of the following statements best describes the first thing researchers need to do to manipulate DNA?
A. Restriction enzymes would be used to cut the DNA into smaller pieces.
B. Single-stranded DNA fragments would be placed with DNA polymerase in a test tube.
C. Gel electrophoresis would be used to separate fragments of DNA.
D. Researchers would need to separate synthesized strands by size on a gel.
3. Which of the following codons code for threonine?
4. Which item is responsible for joining nucleotides to build a new strand of DNA?
A. DNA polymerase
C. Nitrogenous bases
D. Hydrogen-bond breaking proteins
5. Which one of the following statements is accurate?
A. False colors are added to images to make some structures more noticeable.
B. Electron microscopes focus beams of light using magnetic fields.
C. Compound light microscopes utilize lenses and beams of electrons to produce images.
D. Electron microscopes are tools used to study living organisms when they’re alive.
6. Unlike in prokaryotic cells, replication in eukaryotic cells
A. involves much less DNA.
B. is continuous in two directions until the whole chromosome is copied.
C. starts from a single point.
D. can start in many different places on a sequence at the same time.
7. Which of the following is not a potential concern associated with the use of biotechnology?
A. The production yields of GM foods
B. The safety of transgenic foods
C. Genetic ownership
D. Misuse of cloning
8. Which statement accurately describes how identification of individuals through the use of genetic engineering is possible?
A. The X chromosome can only be passed from a father to his son.
B. The Y chromosome doesn’t experience crossing-over.
C. The mitochondria DNA in a mother and her offspring vary greatly.
D. The DNA in mitochondria is passed from mother to child in the nucleus of a cell.
9. Which of the following accurately describes a step within transcription?
A. DNA polymerase uses one strand of RNA as a template to put together nucleotides.
B. The DNA strand is used as a template for which a complementary RNA strand can be produced.
C. The RNA strand is produced within the cytoplasm.
D. The RNA strand forms a template by which DNA can be built.
10. What can be said about prokaryotes and eukaroytes?
A. Eukaryotes always have a cell membrane, but prokaryotes don’t.
B. Both of these cell types contain genetic material.
C. Prokaryotes always have a nucleus, but eukaryotes don’t.
D. Both of these cell types contain a nucleus.
11. Which of the following accurately describes the process of translation?
A. Each codon calls for a specific nucleotide.
B. The process continues until a ribosome reaches UAA, UAG, or UGA.
C. Each tRNA molecule has a codon that matches an mRNA anticodon.
D. The process continues until a ribosome reaches AUG.
12. The organelle responsible for receiving, packaging, and shipping proteins is called the
D. Golgi apparatus.
13. Which of the following is a product of photosynthesis?
A. Carbon dioxide
14. Which of the following is true of chloroplasts?
A. They’re full of flattened stacks of membranes called stroma.
B. They’re composed of a liquid-filled space known as the thylakoids.
C. They’re the main site of photosynthesis in autotrophs.
D. They’re found in animal cells.
15. Which of the following is an accurate description of mitosis and meiosis?
A. Both processes are always a form of sexual reproduction.
B. Meiosis produces two haploid daughter cells, while mitosis produces four diploid daughter cells.
C. Both processes always change the number of chromosomes.
D. Mitosis produces two diploid daughter cells, while meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells.
17. Which one of the following accurately describes the reactions within photosynthesis?
A. The light-dependent reactions are responsible for making sugars.
B. The light-independent reactions use the sunlight to drive its processes.
C. The light-independent reactions use ATP and NADPH.
D. The light-independent reactions are responsible for making ATP and NADPH.
18. Unlike DNA, RNA
A. has deoxyribose as the sugar within its nucleotide components.
B. pairs uracil with adenosine instead of thymine.
C. contains two strands wrapped in a helix.
D. contains nitrogenous bases.
19. Which of the following statements does not accurately describe stem cells?
A. With more research, stem cells may be used to repair or replace damaged cells.
B. Embryonic stem cells make up the inner cell mass of a blastocyst.
C. The use of stem cells is without any objections since it can be used in therapies to help humans.
D. Adult stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate into many types of cells.
20. Suppose a dominant allele (N) codes for a big nose and a recessive allele (n) codes for a small nose. Imagine that an organism receives a dominant allele from its mom and a dominant allele from its dad. What can be determined about its genotype and phenotype?
A. The organism has a large nose, because it’s homozygous.
B. The organism has a small nose, because it’s homozygous.
C. The organism has a large nose, because it’s heterozygous.
D. The organism has a small nose, because it’s heterozygous.