Artificial Selection: What is Artificial Selection?
Artificial Selection: What is artificial selection?
Artificial selection is selecting a trait in a particular population which results in passing down genes to future generations. Animals who experience artificial selection exhibit traits that ultimately help them be more successful at obtaining resources like food and mates or generally procreate.
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Artificial selection is a complicated subject where student find it difficult to comprehend but biology essay help is here to assist with any artificial selection assignment.
Because of the process of artificial selection, traits that help an animal be more successful at obtaining resources can be passed on to its offspring and eventually be incorporated into the population of a species. Too frequently, these traits are not good traits. For example, humans have big brains to store and use knowledge for survival and defense; but in some individuals, this trait could result in mental disorders or other disabilities.
What is artificial selection apex?
Artificial selection apex is the point at which a species has undergone artificial selection for so long that it is considered a new species. Artificial selection apex is when the artificial selection has created a new subspecies or species. The main point of artificial selection apex is to create a more successful individual from their original ancestor.
Steps of artificial selection
- Select a species.
- Pick a desirable trait.
- Breed them together.
- Choose the individual who demonstrates the desired attribute the most.
- For the upcoming generation, breed that trait.
- For numerous generations, repeat steps 4 and 5.
Examples of artificial selection
Artificial selection in cows
Artificial selection in cows led to the creation of milk and beef cows. For milk cows, humans selected larger udders to produce a higher volume of milk, which humans desired. For beef cows, humans selected larger bodies to create animals better at storing fat and could survive harsh winter conditions.
Artificial selection in dogs
Artificial selection in dogs led to the creation of many dog breeds like German shepherds or retrievers. Dogs were selected for certain personality traits like aggression, size, and loyalty. Humans did this because they wanted easier to train and guard dogs.
Artificial selection in corn
Artificial selection in corn led to the creation of corn that was more resistant to fungus and pests. For example, corn was selected for shorter ears so pests could not reach and eat them as easily.
Uses of artificial selection
1. Artificial selection is used in agriculture to improve crop production. Farmers choose the best plants or animals when they are breeding to create new breeds.
2. Artificial selection is also used in human medicine. Scientists try to use artificial selection to fight diseases and make people healthier.
3. Artificial selection is used to develop pure breeds of pets. Breeders and kennel clubs attempt to create pure breeding lines with desired traits through artificial selection.
4. Artificial selection is used to develop new breeds of domestic animals from wild ancestors. This is done by selecting for and against certain phenotypes in the wild population until a new breed of animal that looks, acts and potentially has different disease resistances and nutrition is created.
5. Biotechnology uses artificial selection to create genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Ethics of artificial selection
Artificial selection has many ethical implications.
When it comes to artificial selection in the breeding of domestic animals, it is important to have respect for the animals. Humans should not create dramatic differences between different breeds if they do not exist in nature. It is unethical to create unhealthy animals or use more resources than they need because of specific artificial selections made by humans.
Expanding artificial selection to humans also has ethical implications. An individual’s choices in his or her diet and lifestyle can lead to health problems that may result from the artificial selection of other traits. Because of this, most scientists do not want to use artificial selection in humans.
Advantages of artificial selection
1. Artificial selection is selecting individuals to create a new breed or subspecies.
2. Artificial selection allows genetic diversity in populations and breeds to be preserved.
3. Artificial selection allows for traits that make animals more successful at acquiring food and mating partners and therefore pass on to future generations more easily to be selected for.
4. Artificial selection allows for genes to be passed on more efficiently over many generations because they are more likely to be genetically linked due to the process of artificial selection
Disadvantages of artificial selection
1. Artificial selection can also lead to increased inbreeding and genetic disorders. This is because there is only one way for a trait to be passed on from generation to generation: through the animal’s DNA. If this process takes place too much, it could lead to disease-causing mutations or disorders.
2. Selecting for only one characteristic, as artificial selection does, may lead to the extinction of an animal. Artificial selection is a way to create many different traits in an animal, but most traits are not desirable if the animal is extinct.
3. Artificial selection’s unnatural process has led to many negative impacts on the environment of the selected species. For example, it could negatively impact other surrounding species by changing their environments or destroying their habitats or food sources.
4. Artificial selection can lead to problems in human society as well. Because of artificial selection, one individual may be very successful at mating and reproducing. Still, even though they have desirable traits, they have no social or psychological traits that allow them to interact with other animals or people appropriately. In this aspect, artificial selection cannot be compared to natural selection, which helps to evolve animals and people into better functioning organisms.
Differences And similarities between artificial selection and natural selection
There are many differences and similarities between artificial and natural selection.
Artificial selection is selecting individuals in a given population to create new breeds, while natural selection selects naturally occurring traits. Migration and immigration can lead to reduced fitness known as migration load which causes persistent in natural selection.
Both artificial and natural selection start with a population of organisms. These organisms have various characteristics like eye color, hair color, tail length, etc. There is variation in the presence of these traits or characteristics among the different individual organisms in the population. Organisms with certain characteristics are better suited for their environment than those without them. This results in the organisms with the advantageous trait(s) surviving longer, reproducing more often, and passing on their genes to their offspring. This process happens generation after generation. The result of this is the evolution of new species with advantageous traits.
The organisms used in artificial selection are still selected based on their phenotype, while natural selection selects based on their genotype.
Artificial selection uses humans to decide which animals should breed and produce offspring, while natural selection does not involve human decision-making.
How is artificial selection dependent on variation in nature?
Artificial selection starts with a population of organisms with variations in certain characteristics. Then, one organism’s characteristics are selected to be used as a basis for artificial selection. This is done by selecting animals with advantageous traits or selecting those that exhibit a trait even though they may not naturally have it. The advantage of this process is that only one trait needs to be selected on an animal, which means that the results will be more consistent regarding breeding variables and outcomes.