Third Punic War
What was the third Punic war?
The Third Punic War was a war in which Rome completed the conquest of Carthage and Rome. The war lasted from 149 to 146 BC.E
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When and where did the third punic war start?
The Third Punic War started in 149 BC. It was the last of the three wars that Rome fought against Carthage during their expansion of the Mediterranean Sea. Both countries were historically close allies but went to war in 146 BC over an issue with one of Rome’s Iberian allies.
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What happened in the third punic war?
Rome defeated the three other powers in the region (the Macedonians, Seleucids and the Kingdom of Numidia), annexing those lands into its Italian territory. This left Carthage surrounded by Roman territory, with no allies, making it easy to attack.
After a series of skirmishes beginning in 151 BC, open warfare broke out in 149 BC. Carthage defeated Rome’s first attempt to invade Africa but Scipio Aemilianus beat us at the Battle of Carthage.
The war ended in 146 BC after Scipio Aemilianus conquered and destroyed Carthage.
The third Punic War was the last of the three Punic wars fought between Rome and Carthage. Its catastrophic losses ended the Carthaginian Empire and marked Rome as the dominant Mediterranean power.
Causes of the third punic war
The causes of the third punic war were:
1. Rome attacked Carthage to weaken Rome’s rival power in the Mediterranean Sea.
2. Rome wanted to expand its territory at the cost of Carthage
3. In 151 BC, Carthage attacked and defeated Roman ally Numidia in North Africa
4. Carthage attacked Rome’s ally Iberian peninsula but was defeated and forced to pay reparations
5. The Carthaginians invaded the Roman province of Sicily and took control of much of its land. This caused Rome to declare war on Carthage to avenge the invasion
6. Scipio Africanus Aemilianus, the most famous commander, won over twenty five battles against the Carthaginians.
How did the third punic war affect rome?
1. Scipio Africanus, who was victorious in the Third Punic War, became very famous and important. He set up a new constitution for Rome in which he would have a lot of power. At the time, he was considered more powerful than even Julius Caesar.
2. Rome completed their conquest of North Africa by eliminating all Carthaginian power and taking control of all their territory
3. Rome also conquered Sicily and then became a naval power.
The importance of the third punic war
The third punic war had quite a big effect on rome. It marked the end of Carthaginian power, which allowed Rome to emerge as the new Mediterranean power. The Roman Empire was able to grow at a time when a lot of countries were just becoming independent.
Outcomes of the third punic war
1. Rome conquered Carthage and took control of their lands
2. Carthage was reduced to a backwater state, which had no way to challenge Rome’s power
3. Rome emerged as the Mediterranean power, able to influence countries such as Greece and Egypt
4. Rome was able to defeat the Macedonians and Seleucids
5. Carthage’s armies were destroyed, marking the end of their attempts at becoming a major power in the Mediterranean Sea
6. Most of Rome’s army (including three thousand Roman citizens) was lost during the war, weakening them slightly
Who won, and how did the third punic war end
The third punic war ended in 146 BC. Rome emerged as the victor of the war.
Rome defeated and destroyed Carthage, marking the end of the Punic wars
Roman and Carthaginian armies