Hsa 535 Midterm Exam Part Ii

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1. Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?

A- To describe the health status of the population
B-To fund the new public health programs
C-To explain the etiology of disease
D- To predict the occurrence of disease
E- To control the distribution of disease

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Answer: To fund the new public health programs

2. Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?

A-Description of specific signs and symptoms in a patient
B-Description of seasonal trends in disease occurrence
C-Examination of disease occurrence among population groups
D-Demonstration of geographic variations in disease frequency

Answer: Demonstration of geographic variations in disease frequency

3. Which of the following activities characterizes an epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)?

A. Description of a single individual’s symptoms
B. Study of cancer occurrence in populations
C. Treatment of a patient with lung cancer
D. Diagnosis of a disease in a single individual
E. A, C, D

Answer: Study of cancer occurrence in populations

4. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):

Answer: tracking down unusual disease outbreaks in the United States and foreign countries

5. Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect:

Answer: Seasonal variations in cases of influenza

6. John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:

Answer: Was an early epidemiologist who used natural experiments

7. In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to:

Answer: Tuberculosis

8. Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by nutritional counseling for pregnant women

A. Primary Prevention Active
B. Primary Prevention Passive
C. Secondary Prevention
D. Tertiary Prevention

Answer: Primary Prevention Active

9. In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline?

Answer:

10. Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancer

A. Primary Prevention Active
B. Primary Prevention Passive
C. Secondary Prevention
D. Tertiary Prevention

Answer: Secondary Prevention

11. Using epidemiology for operational research involves:

a-search for determinants (causes of disease)
b-estimation of individual risks and chances of contracting disease
c-evaluation of health services
d-all of the above

Answer: all of the above

12. The difference between primary and secondary prevention of disease is:

1) Primary prevention means control of causal factors, while secondary
prevention means control of symptoms.
2) Primary prevention means control of acute disease, while secondary
prevention means control of chronic disease.
3) Primary prevention means control of causal factors, while secondary prevention
means early detection and treatment of disease.
4) Primary prevention means increasing resistance to disease, while secondary
prevention means decreasing exposure to disease.

Answer: Primary prevention means control of causal factors, while secondary
prevention means control of symptoms.

13. Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by half-way houses for persons recovering from addiction

A. Primary Prevention Active
B. Primary Prevention Passive
C. Secondary Prevention
D. Tertiary Prevention

Answer: Tertiary Prevention

14. Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk

A. Primary Prevention Active
B. Primary Prevention Passive
C. Secondary Prevention
D. Tertiary Prevention

Answer: Primary Prevention Passive

15. An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:

Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month 12,000 Roller-skating injuries in Metroville 600 Total number of residents injured from roller-skating 1,800 Total number of deaths from roller-skating 90 Total number of deaths from all causes 900

The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:

Answer: 90/100,000 x 100,000

16. Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the:

Answer: race- specific prevalence
race- specific incidence

 17. Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer: Prevalence ; Estimating frequency of exposure

18: Estimating the frequency of exposure. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer: This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

19. The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

Answer: the incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time.

20. To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer: This is a use primarily for prevalence data

21.The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer: This is a use primarily for incidence data.

22. Beach City has a rising population of 500,000 robust, fertile males and 450,000 robust, fertile females. If there were 4,000 live births, 3 fetal deaths, and 40 maternal deaths, what is the crude birth rate?

Answer: 4,000/950,000 × 1,000

23. Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by sex in the United States generally show the following sex differences:

Answer: Rates for males are higher than rates for females from birth to age 85 and older.

24. A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following?

a. Positive declaration

b. Negative declaration

c. Implicit question

d. None of the above

Answer: Negative Declaration

25. Reasons for gender differences in mortality may include:

a. Greater risk taking by women.

b. Greater frequency of smoking among men.

c. Higher prevalence of coronary-prone behavior among women.

d. A, B and C

Answer: Greater frequency of smoking among men

26. Lung cancer mortality among women is increasing faster than among men. What factor(s) would most likely account for this increased cancer rate?

a. Younger women are smoking more.

b. Older women are smoking more.

c. Women are smoking less.

d. Both A and B

Answer: Women are smoking less.

27. Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the incorrect option):

A identifies problems to be studied by analytic methods.

B allows causal inference from descriptive data.

C provides the basis for planning and evaluation of health services.

D allows comparisons by age, sex, and race.

E uses case reports, case series, and cross-sectional studies

Answer: allows causal inference from descriptive data.

28. Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:

A.admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born persons
B.diseases found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United States
C.some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases
D.immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successful

Answer: some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases

29. Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?

Answer: The illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished areas of a city

30. Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor?

Answer: Concominant variation

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