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Question:

One of the black markets that Vietnam became highly regarded for is human trafficking victims. Amongst victims mainly are women being sold as brides to men in China. As media reports, the men were buying Vietnamese wives for $11,800 in 2014. Reason for that was the gender imbalance in China leading to more women from neighboring countries to be trafficked. Men in such countries found it really hard to find available women, which lead to the black market in brides.

Write a 900 word essay about Efforts at resolution, including investigations, persecutions, truth commissions, reparations, military intervention etc regarding human trafficking from Vietnam.

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Essay on Human Trafficking

Resolution Efforts towards Human Trafficking In Vietnam

Introduction

Girls, women, and men from Vietnam get trafficked and subjected to labor and sexual exploitation in the following countries: Russia, Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, Sweden, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, China, Japan, the United Arabs Emirates, Laos, South Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. They also get trafficked in other Middle East parts. It is worth noting that there are various ways through which labor and sex trafficking victims are subjected to intimidation. Such methods include deportation threats, travel and identity documents confiscation, and debt bondage. Given the detrimental nature of human trafficking, there are various resolution methods that are being put to use in a bid to curb it. In this regard, this paper sets out to discuss such human trafficking resolution methods as prevention, policy, protection, prosecution, and international cooperation as applied in the case of Vietnam.

The Vietnamese government has set out to apply strategies that would help it prevent incidences of human trafficking in the country. These strategies majorly target the youth found in the northern and southern rural areas of the country. However, the general public and various government authorities are also a target of the same. This work is carried out by many stakeholders. It involves alleviation of poverty through such projects as micro credit schemes, technical training and life skills, provision of job and vocational opportunities, and campaigns aimed at awareness creation (Taylor, Torpy & Das, 2013). The export of labor from Vietnam is not considered one of the best strategies of development. In spite of this, migrant workers are also protected through government regulations and laws.

Another resolution effort, as is earlier stated, is policy formulation and implementation. According to Kranrattanasuit (2014), the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Women and Children 2011-2015 is being implemented under the supervision of the cooperation between international agencies, NGOs, mass organizations, and the Public Security Ministry. In addition, the Vietnamese government actively participates in such regional forums as COMMIT (Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking) as a member. Through this initiative, the six GMS countries join hands in dealing with the human trafficking elephant. The other forums that have Vietnam as a member are the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the AIPO Forum on Legal Cooperation to Combat Human Trafficking. By taking part in these international initiatives, Vietnam hopes that it would be better placed to tackle the menace of human trafficking through the help of other concerned countries.

The country also strives to combat the human trafficking problem through protection. Some of the activities involved in this work, as indicated by Kranrattanasuit (2014), are recovery, repatriation, legal proceedings, rescue, and identification. Additionally, trafficked children and women get received and reintegrated into the country. Initial support, counseling, and medical care are provided by international organizations and sub-committees at the local level. Nine reception centers and shelters had been set up in Ho Chi Minh, Can Tho, An Giang, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Quang Ninh, and Ha Noi by the year 2011. Through these centers, vocational training, counseling, medical care, accommodation, and food are provided to the victims. A Reintegration Network is also in place to provide support to the trafficking victims. It involves various victim protection agencies. The network puts in place strong capacity building and referral systems to be used by operators of hotline services, the police, and social workers. These efforts aim at ensuring trafficked victims do not end up being exploited as would have been planned by their traffickers. Specifically, the efforts are meant to see the victims reunited with their relations or protected while awaiting repatriation back to their respective countries of origin.

Prosecution is another resolution effort applied by Vietnam as far as human trafficking is concerned. McCabe (2008) observes that those involved in prosecution are Vietnamese and international institutions, the criminal justice system in Vietnam, and police investigations. Specifically, the Criminal Police Department has a police unit that is specialized in counter-trafficking. The unit is also found in selected provinces. In addition, law enforcement agencies in the country are subjected to capacity building and training provided by international agencies such as ARTIP and UNODC. The period between the years 2004 and 2006 saw the legislation of Vietnam on smuggling of migrants being assessed. The assessment was done against the UN Protocol and the Palermo Protocol. Following the assessment, it was recommended that the Criminal Code be revised and the law on anti-human trafficking to be enacted. So far, there have been 1367 convictions about children and women trafficking. The hope is that with more convictions, traffickers will become more and more wary about the possibility of being arrested and prosecuted and will thus significantly reduce their trafficking tendencies.

Finally, the international community has also been at hand in helping Vietnam deal with the human trafficking problem. This has been possible through international cooperation. There is a close working relationship between the government of Vietnam and foreign donors, NGOs, and other international organizations concerning the human trafficking issue. For instance, there are memoranda of understanding (MOU) of cooperation signed between Vietnam and Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and China on the issue (Hoang & Parreñas, 2014). Such memoranda are geared towards strengthening the fight against human trafficking especially from Vietnam. However, the Vietnamese government has not yet made adequate agreements with all countries that serve as destinations for her trafficked citizens as appertains to enactment of laws against forced labor. This is a major failure on the part of Vietnam in its resolve to eradicate human trafficking. It should act promptly in rectifying this laxity on its part towards making it easier for the international community to help it comprehensively address the vice of human trafficking.

Conclusion

The human trafficking problem continues to be a thorn in the flesh of the Vietnamese government and the international community at large. However, more responsibility lies with the Vietnamese government in the fight against the same. The international community would only offer successful support if Vietnam is in the front in the fight. This is why the country needs to take the fight to a higher level by making more effective the resolution methods it is applying I tackling the menace. In other words, the methods are good; however, a little more effort is needed in their implementation.

References

Hoang, K., & Parreñas, R. (2014). Human trafficking reconsidered: rethinking the problem, envisioning new solutions. New York, NY: International Debate Education Association.

Kranrattanasuit, N. (2014). ASEAN and human trafficking. Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

McCabe, K. (2008). The trafficking of persons. New York, NY: P. Lang.

Taylor, S. C., Torpy, D. J., & Das, D. K. (2013). Policing global movement: tourism, migration, human trafficking, and terrorism. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

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