Some Scholars Believe That the Very Essence of Japanese Architecture Evolved from the Design of

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Question 2: Some scholars believe that the very essence of Japanese architecture evolved from the design of

A). Watermills

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B). Stables

C). Granaries

D). Greenhouses

Answer: (C)

Step By Step Explanation

This design proved ideal for collecting water, leading this architectural style to be widely used in Japan before it was imported to Europe. These structures were built on a slope, with the upper part of the building turned towards the heavens so that rainwater and snow could easily run into them.

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According to Professor Wilson’s lecture on Mesopotamia, a ziggurat:


Rises out of the earth, and sometimes the literal flood waters is a symbolic mountain that expresses a ritualistic function

Correct!—- all of the above

Step-by-Step explanation

According to the Professor in the lecture on Mesopotamia, a ziggurat was a steep pyramid-like structure built of mud bricks and topped with a temple. They were built as places of worship and burial, usually associated with temples and other buildings containing religious objects.

Ziggurats were built in many ancient Mesopotamian cities, the earliest known dating from the late 4th millennium BC during the Chalcolithic period. The wide terraces on top may have been platforms for temples or raised areas intended for sacrifices or rituals; scholars believe they also served as platforms for astronomy. They are regarded as among the oldest structures found in what is now Iraq; excavations at Uruk date back to quadrangular ziggurats that date to 3500 BCE. Although ziggurats were built in the 3rd Millennium BCE, it is only in the Old Babylonian Empire (1894-1595 BCE) that they are numerous and prominent. Known today as the “bricks-and-mortar” style of construction, this form was molded into its iconic shape with bricks made from clay, gypsum, and bitumen. The Eanna Temple at Nippur is perhaps the earliest surviving ziggurat; it is not known when it was constructed.

The earliest ziggurats belonged to the Sumerian city-state of Ur, but others stood at Nineveh, Harran, Babylon, and Assur.

An example of a Japanese building
An example of a Japanese building

What is Japanese architecture?  

Japanese architecture is a form of architecture mostly developed in Japan from ancient times up to the modern age. It takes its roots in the Ancient Near East and its ideas from Chinese architecture but has a distinctive character most prominently demonstrated by independence-seeking ancestral homes. 

Japanese culture, particularly Zen Buddhism, significantly impacted architectural styles.

Why is Japanese architecture important?

1. Its an expression of the Japanese culture

2. It symbolizes their understanding of the natural world as a source of spiritual insight

3. It is an instructive mirror of human emotion 

What influenced Japanese architecture and which countries influenced the traditional Japanese architecture

Japanese architecture was influenced by geography, climate, materials available for construction, Scientific revolution and religion.

Countries that influenced the traditional Japanese architecture include China and Korea

How High are Traditional Japanese Buildings?

The average height for Japanese buildings is usually three to ten stories. The highest traditional building in japan is twenty-two stories high. 

Why Do Japanese Buildings Sway?

It’s a well-known fact that many Japanese houses, especially those built in the early 20th century, have been built without columns or support beams. These buildings are held up by a wooden frame consisting of large posts and heavy cross bands. When these homes settle on their foundations due to uneven ground or earthquakes, they can lose stability. They sway because the heavy cross bands are no longer parallel to the ground.

This issue becomes more apparent when the building has undergone an expansion or renovation, typically involving removing a wall section and re-stabilizing it’s footing before rebuilding the walls. The post-and-beam structure must be adjusted after this work is completed. This can be done by removing the walls’ sections and replacing them with cross bands to make them vertical again.

Decorative Elements in Japanese architecture
Decorative Elements in Japanese architecture

Why Do Japanese Buildings Use Tiles Outside?

The distinctive tile pattern you see outside many Japanese homes, where the tiles are connected vertically by a framework of cross bands, is called karumi. This design has the advantage of being able to expand and contract with changes in seasonal curves or weather. The vertical framework also makes houses more stable because it is more rigid than horizontal framing in wood.

How Do They Make Curved Roofs for Japanese Buildings?

The roof of a Japanese building is built using a wooden frame with joints made of bamboo strips. This was then covered with thick paper and several layers of heavy clay tiles. The curved roofs were fixed onto the wooden frames using rope or straw rope. It must be adjusted if the original design no longer works for new, more modern uses. This can be done by adjusting the wood frame that supports the clay tiles or replacing them with lighter materials such as aluminum, concrete, or terracotta tiles.

How Old are the Typical Japanese School Buildings?

From the late Edo period (1600- 1867) to the present, Japanese school buildings have evolved through several stages of construction and modifications. The oldest school building in Japan is a traditional wooden lodge styled after an A-frame structure built by the Tenshoku sect in Yamagata prefecture.

This structure has been modified many times since its initial construction but remained relatively unchanged from its original design until it was demolished in 1949. Other schools followed a similar construction style but with different modern-used adaptations.

How are Japanese Buildings Built to Withstand Earthquakes?

Concrete is a particularly strong building material for earthquake resistance. But because it is heavy, it can create an unstable foundation for a building. However, the rigid strength of reinforced concrete can be increased by adding flexible materials such as steel cables and rubber to distribute the tension throughout the structure. This protects against lateral forces that cause structures to shake and break. So, instead of using concrete alone, Japanese buildings have been built with steel-reinforced concrete since the mid-20th century to withstand lateral pressure from earthquakes.

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Categories: History