Lowering the third scale degree of a major scale changes its

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1.Lowering the third scale degree of a major scale changes its

level of dissonance
meter to triple
quality to minor
dynamic level

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Answer: quality to minor

2. Which of the following describes a similarity between Western scales and Indian ragas?

Both are associated with emotions or spiritual states.
Both can be changed by emphasizing different pitches.
Both comprise a specific set of seven tones.
Both are made up of half­ steps and whole­steps.

Answer: Both can be changed by emphasizing different pitches.

3. Texture composed of multiple independent melodies sounding simultaneously is known as


Answer: polyphonic.

4. The _______ step of active listening requires organizing the sounds heard into meaningful parts.


Answer: Analysis

Similarity Between Western Scales And Indian Ragas

Across the world, music is a language that everyone understands. People from different backgrounds tend to make the moves as long as the beats and tunes come on. But, the genres can have sharp differences in composition. The keys, notes, and other characteristics may drift from one genre to another.

A piece of music is a large building with different building blocks. The blocks that construct music include form, rhythm, melody, and harmony. Then, the building’s finishing and decor in tempo and timbre are done to have texture. The texture of the music is the interaction and density of musical voices. 

The texture alignment makes composers and researchers agree that Western Scales are similar to the Indian Ragas. The textural similarities between these two types of music include the following:


Most of the standard sets of music today are homophonic. Homophonic texture involves a central melodic line supported by one or more melodies to form harmonic support. 

Traditional homophony involves all the voices singing or instrumentalists playing the same rhythm to create a full texture. Chorales arranged in the conventional four-voice hymnal style are the most common homophones. Most Western Scales belong here.

Most European musicians created Western harmony by creating chords that stacked the voices on top of each other. An example is J. S. Bach’s Jesu, Meine Freude.

Video showing J. S. Bach’s Jesu, Meine Freude homophony

2. Monophonic

Monophony is the simplest type of texture in music because it has only one melodic line. Monophonic music lacks counterpoints or harmony. Rhythmic accompaniments may follow, but only the music has a single line carrying the pitches.

So, if a song has only one melodic sound, it is monophony. If anyone accompanies any voice or instrument to the music, it ceases to be monophonic.

A few Western Scales employ this texture.

Examples of Monophonic Music include:

  • Someone whistles to a tune
  • A group of soldiers singing a song around a campfire
  • A drum corp of fifes playing the same melody
  • Taps on one bugle
  • A crowd singing their team’s anthem during a match with no other melody or accompaniment

Noteworthy, monophonic texture can be confusing since it does not mean the song in play has only one music or voice. Monophony can entail several people playing an instrument or singing.

Instead, it is a single melody with no other different harmony, regardless of the number of people singing. An example is the intro of the song Sir Duke by Stevie Wonder, which is still monophonic despite several instruments being at play. 

Video of Epitapth of Seikilos Monophony

3. Heterophonic

Heterophyony is the texture created by varying melodies. Most music textures of Asia and the Middle East’s traditional cultures are heterophonic. A few European old folk, however, employ this texture.

If monophony is the first grade, heterophony could be the second. The texture is an elaborate form of monophony. Although this music is neither Indian nor Western, it’s been adapted by several musicians and incorporated into their work.

Mozart played heterophony in his Piano Concerto, and thus means the Westerners, too, were keen on this texture. 

Video of Mozart’s Heterophony 

4. Polyphonic

Polyphonic music texture consists of multiple melodic lines sung or played simultaneously. Early polyphonic compositions just involved musicians singing or playing different songs simultaneously.

Polyphony developed in the Middle Ages and dominated the renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was one of the vocal proponents of this texture. 

Video showing Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina’s Polyphony

Most Western composers wrote their polyphonies in a style called counterpoint. The innovation set the way for modern Western harmonies. 

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