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This sample racial profiling research paper tries to establish whether racial profiling is indeed a law enforcement tool or an act of racism. One cannot ignore the positive impact it has had on the general society, but then it has also led to abuse of rights of the minorities.

Free Racial Profiling in America Sample Essay

Racial profiling is the act of linking particular ethnic groups to acts of crime. The American population comprises of several ethnic groups, with whites being the majority. Most of the minority groups in the country consist of migrants and their generations (Risse & Zeckhauser, 2004). Laws in the United States and the American justice treats people of the white race more favorably than other ethnicities. A discussion regarding the subject of racial profiling in the United States is provided hereof.

Racial profiling is an issue that a variety of civil rights movement in the United States has continued to condemn. It is an act that is highly accepted and practiced by law enforcement agencies of the majority white race, and that amounts to the abuse of civil rights of minority groups in the United States (Risse & Zeckhauser, 2004). The act is illegal according to the fourth amendment to the United States Constitution, but the law enforcers and the criminal justice system have defined behavioral criteria that promote it (Risse & Zeckhauser, 2004). The Department of justice disputes that racial profiling exists citing that law enforcement officers act on individuals from minority groups owing to their suspicion and not the ethnicity of such persons. Some countries in the United States have enforced laws aimed at stopping the act of racial profiling, but no positive results have been realized so far (Risse & Zeckhauser, 2004). Those who criticize the law argue that unless the police act by its constraints, then it is impossible to implement the law.

Racial profiling in the United States can be defined from two perceptions, first as an essential tool for the law enforcement agencies, and an abuse of the rights of the minority groups. According to many literature writings, the incidence of racial profiling in the US increased after the September 2001, terrorist attack (Schulk, Martin & Glaser, 2012). Reports about the attacks showed that they were facilitated by Arab immigrants who were members of the Al-Qaeda terrorist group. The nature and damage of these attacks created a whole new picture of Muslims who migrate to the United States. Since then the law enforcement agencies have always treated individuals of Arab origin with suspicion (Schulk, Martin & Glaser, 2012). Evidence shows that racial profiling of Arabs and Muslims has contributed to decreases in the number of terrorist incidences experienced in the United States since the year 2001 (Schulk, Martin & Glaser, 2012). In as much as it is an unacceptable practice, it has helped save millions of American lives and their property. From this perception, many will agree that racial profiling can be viewed as an acceptable practice of the law enforcement agencies.

Drug and substance abuse is one of the most challenging societal issues the American government is facing today (Franco, 2007). Millions of American youths are unproductive owing to their addiction to a variety of hard drugs existent in the American streets. Studies reveal that most of the drug businesses existent in the US are run by black people, and Latinos from Mexico (Franco, 2007). Apart from the effects that the drugs have on American youths, the business has resulted to increase in violent gun crimes as gangs fight over control of streets to sell the drugs. Immigrants from Mexico are linked to a very notorious group known as MS-13, which deals with distribution of drugs and guns (Franco, 2007). The criminal gang has resulted in the loss of lives of many Americans including children. In efforts to curb the spread of this criminal group, the United States government in conjunction with law enforcement agencies uses racial profiling on blacks and Latinos (Franco, 2007). Studies reveal that racial profiling has resulted in the incarceration of a high proportion of MS-13 gang members (Franco, 2007). The practice has, therefore, led to decrease in the number of drug-related violent crimes as well as the number of hard drugs evident in the United States Streets.

Most of the people who facilitate terrorist and drug business undertakings are immigrants who belong to Arab, black, and Latino minorities. The law enforcement agencies have a right to use racial profiling in efforts to stop criminal acts discussed above, but racial profiling is as well meted on minority individuals who are in real sense American citizens by birth. It is impossible to differentiate between an American born African American and an immigrant. Therefore, the general practice of racial profiling subjects American citizens who belong to minorities to discrimination that they do not deserve (Level, 2007). Numerous evidence shows that most highway police officers use race as the basis of stopping cars. The act of using race to prevent cars or as efforts to curb crimes translates to discrimination, which is unacceptable and illegal according to the constitution.

It is difficult to establish whether or not racial profiling is proliferated by racism, which has continued to evidence itself in the American population. Law enforcement agencies employ the practice under the guise of crime prevention and are supported by a majority of Americans who belong to the white race. Racial profiling has resulted in the death of numerous innocent individuals from minority groups shot by police as mistaken identities (Level, 2007). Racial profiling has as well led to the incarceration of innocent individuals from minority groups in the United States (Level, 2007). Many countries in the United States have implemented laws aimed at stopping this practice, but no law enforcement agencies have continued to disregard it. The critical drawback towards ending the racial profiling menace in the US is the law enforcement agency, which is made up of a majority of whites, who are not ready to put the law into practice. The belief that people from a particular population group have a higher incidence of committing crimes has as contributed to the prevalence of racial profiling cases in the US.

Racial profiling essay references

Franco, C. (2007, November). The MS 13 and 18th Street Gangs: Emerging Transnational Gang Threats?. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

Lever, A. (2007). What’s wrong with racial profiling? Another look at the problem. Criminal Justice Ethics26(1), 20-28.

Risse, M., & Zeckhauser, R. (2004). Racial profiling. Philosophy & Public Affairs32(2), 131-170.

Schuck, P. H., Martin, K. D., & Glaser, J. (2012). POINT: Profiling is a legitimate practice if used correctly. It can be an effective and necessary tool for law enforcement.

Racial Profiling Outline


Racial profiling is an act that is highly practiced by the law enforcement agencies in the United States as a security precaution but amounts to the abuse of rights of the minority groups.


Paragraph 1:

Racial profiling has continued to receive massive condemnation from Civil Rights Movements and is highly practiced by law enforcement offers of the majority white race.

  • It amounts to the abuse of the rights of the minority.
  • The act is illegal according to the fourth amendment of the American constitution, but the police and the justice system have created avenues to legalize the action.
  • The justice department disputes the existence of cases of racial profiling.
  • Many countries have implanted policies to stop racial profiling, but no positive results have been realized.

Paragraph 2:

Racial profiling is a valuable law enforcement tool.

  • Through racial profiling cases of terrorism have reduced since the September 11, 2001 attacks.
  • Many American lives have been saved as well as property.

Paragraph 3:

Racial profiling has enabled authorities to lower drug-related gun violence and the number of hard drugs available in the streets of United States.

  • Racial profiling has resulted in the incarceration of MS-13 gang members and black men, who are the critical drug dealers in the US.
  • A notable decrease in gun violence and cases of drug addiction is evident owing to use of racial profiling.

Paragraph 4:

In spite of the positive implications of racial profiling as a tool for law enforcement, it subjects innocent Americans to discrimination.

  • Not all Muslims are terrorists, and similarly, not all Latinos or African American men are drug dealers.
  • Use of phylogenetic profiling methods is an abuse of the rights of the minorities.


It is difficult to establish whether racial profiling is indeed a law enforcement tool or an act of racism. One cannot ignore the positive impact it has had on the general society, but then it has also led to abuse of rights of the minorities. Innocent people have been jailed and incarcerated as a result of racial profiling.


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