MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. (2 points each)
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1) Which of the following would NOT be associated with turbidity currents?
A) density current B) erosion of submarine canyons
C) formation of seamounts D) deposits of graded beds
Answer; C) formation of seamounts
2) The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________.
A) submarine canyon B) continental rise C) continental slope D) continental shelf
Answer; D) continental shelf
3) Which one of the following is NOT part of passive continental margin?
A) continental rise B) continental slope C) continental shelf D) continental trench
Answer; D) continental trench
4) Ocean covers approximately ________ percent of Earth’s surface
A) 71 B) 91 C) 51 D) 11
Answer; A) 71
5) An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for ________.
A) a laser beam to travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
B) a radar pulse to travel from a ship to the seafloor and back
C) a radar pulse to travel from a satellite in orbit around Earth to the sea surface and back
D) a sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
Answer; D) a sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
6) What kind of seawater is densest?
A) warm, low salinity B) cold, high salinity
C) cold, low salinity D) warm, high salinity
Answer; C) cold, low salinity
7) Examine the graph. At what latitude is the ratio of ocean water to land at its maximum? Choose from the following options.
A) between 60° and 65° north B) between 0° and 5° north
C) between 60° and 65° south D) between 25° and 30° south
Answer; C) between 60° and 65° south
8) No thermocline exists in high-latitude regions because there is little temperature difference between the top and bottom of the water column. In such a situation the water column is said to be ________.
A) pycnoclinal B) multithermal C) clinothermal D) isothermal
Answer; D) isothermal
9) ________ is the proportion of dissolved salts to pure water.
A) Density B) Salinity C) Pycnocline D) Subduction
Answer; B) Salinity
10) Manganese nodules are an example of ________ sediment.
A) manganesogenous B) hydrogenous
C) terrigenous D) biogenous
Answer; B) hydrogenous
11) ________ are huge circular-moving current systems that dominate the surface of the ocean within an ocean basin.
A) Coriolis B) Tombolos C) Upwellings D) Gyres
Answer; D) Gyres
12) When waves reach shallow water they tend to be ________, which makes them become parallel to the shore.
A) refracted B) translated C) reflected D) eroded
Answer; A) refracted
13) Large estuaries are more common on a(n) ________ coastline.
A) emergent B) eroding C) stable D) submergent
Answer; D) submergent
14) Examine the satellite view of chlorophyll concentrations in the southern Atlantic Ocean along the southwest coast of Africa (the nations of Namibia and South Africa). Which of the following statements offers the best explanation for the observed pattern(s)?
A) This is an area of downwelling, where water is sinking due to the higher density it gains when sea ice forms and salinity increases.
B) The coast is a “dead zone,” an area of very low biological activity.
C) This is an area of shallow water and waves breaking as they “feel bottom.”
D) This is an area of upwelling, where nutrient-rich water is rising due to winds blowing over the ocean’s surface.
Answer; D) This is an area of upwelling, where nutrient-rich water is rising due to winds blowing over the ocean’s surface.
15) You visit a coastal area for the first time. You note the presence of marine terraces, sea stacks, and sea arches. Based on these features, the area is likely to be ________.
A) in need of beach nourishment B) a submergent coast
C) experiencing a spring tide D) an emergent coast
Answer; D) an emergent coast
16) Erosional retreat of a(n) ________ leads to enlargement and extension of a wave-cut platform in the inland direction.
A) sea arch B) marine terrace C) spit D) wave-cut cliff
Answer; D) wave-cut cliff
17) The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ________.
A) temperature differences B) salinity variations
C) the Coriolis effect D) prevailing wind patterns
Answer; D) prevailing wind patterns
18) One result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated ________.
A) on spits
B) on headlands projecting into the water
C) in bays, coves, and other recessed areas between headlands
D) on tombolos
Answer; B) on headlands projecting into the water
19) Fetch is ________.
A) a method of shoreline erosion control
B) the distance between the trough of a wave and the still water level
C) the distance over which the wind blows over open water
D) the circular pattern made by water particles when a wave passes
Answer; C) the distance over which the wind blows over open water
20) The center of each of Earth’s five major gyres is found at about ________ latitude.
A) 60° B) 30° C) 90° D) 0° (the equator)
Answer; B) 30°
More question to explore
2. Unit VI Earth’s Dynamic Atmosphere in the textbook (Chapters 11, 12, 13, and 14).