PHI210 Week 11 Assignment Exam 2 Latest 2017 December
1. Which of the following is MOST likely to be a sign of pseudoscience?
Answer: self-correction when contrary evidence is published
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2. Leonardo felt cheated by the used car salesperson who sold him a 1997 Honda Accord several years ago. Ever since then, he assumes the worst when it comes to dealing with salespeople. Which attitude component is this an example of?
3. A scientist is hired to do research for a tobacco company. Anyone reading the scientist’s conclusions should be aware that the scientist may be which of the following?
4. While scientific explanations provide compelling evidence for claims and produce verifiable insights, they are also _________.
Answer: routinely invalidated by later investigations.
5. Steven has to produce a survey for his class project due tomorrow, although he really wants to go to the local high school football game tonight with his father. Steven decides to hand out a survey at the gate of the football stadium which holds roughly 1,000 fans. The survey reads, “Do you prefer sport activities that focus on group achievement or individual achievements?” Which of the following explains why this question could lead to obtaining poor data?
Answer: the data would be faulty because he’s handing out the survey atva football game which is a team sport that focuses on group achievement. surveys should be done in neutral places. given that people are at a football game they’ll tend to say they prefer team sports
6. Which of the following is MOST likely to lead to bad decisions?
Answer: Go with the first choice that springs to mind without taking a moment to consider alternatives .
7. Clinton graduated college with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. While in school he turned down the option to stay an extra year and earn a master’s degree in engineering. Currently, Clinton is having a difficult time finding employment as a mathematician, while all of his engineering friends easily found jobs. What question is Clinton likely asking himself when reflecting upon his decision to not get the master’s degree, which has made it more difficult for him to find a job?
Answer: Clinton is probably asking himself which information he wishes he knew earlier, and if he made the right decision when weighing opportunity costs.
8. Which of the following is something that can lead to making good decisions?
Answer: clearly defining the problem
9. Bryan is the manager of his company’s IT department. One morning a server cluster loses power. Bryan first checks the power supply, the power cables, the wall outlet, and finally the circuit breaker to find what caused the power outage. What did Bryan do?
Answer: he explored potential causes of the problem
10. Wallace is having a frustrating day at work after his manager changes deadlines on him, leaves him out of the loop in an important email chain, and turns down his time-off request. In the middle of a meeting that afternoon, Wallace stands up, announces that he’s quitting, and walks out of the office. Which decision-making misstep did Wallace commit?
Answer: acting impulsively
11. What is sarcasm?
Answer: when someone makes a comment that means the opposite of the literal words they are saying.
12. “They saw the woman with the binoculars” is an example of which type of ambiguity?
13. Which statement BEST describes the relationship between defining terms and clear thinking?
Answer: Clear thinking is dependent on how well terms are defined
14. Which list includes terms that are most often used as qualifiers or “weasel words”?
Answer: :suggested, perhaps, arguably, may, possibly
15. A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?
Answer: determine what a particular word means given the specific context.
16. A bank states that its decision to offer home loans at an extremely low initial, but variable, rate is rooted in the idea that all have a right to owning an affordable home. The bank does not state that the loans are packaged in a product sold to another, larger bank that may or may not work with customers in difficult situations. The smaller bank is no longer exposed to the risk of longer-term loans, and makes a large profit. Which moral theory is the bank operating under?
Answer: ethical egoism
17. Which of the following MOST clearly illustrates a moral dilemma?
Answer: : deciding whether or not to tell your friend
18. How do excuses and justifications differ?
Answer: The defense of justification is applied when acts are carried out to prevent or redress harm. Excuse, on the other hand, is a defense that asserts the actor’s mental inability to consciously do evil
19. Every day on his way to work, Frederic stops by a large chain hotel at which he is not staying, walks into the lobby, and helps himself to the continental breakfast. He believes this is the right thing to do because it saves him a lot of money and is very convenient. What ethical theory is he using to justify his actions?
Answer: ethical egoism
20. Which theory is characterized by doing what is best for others instead of oneself?
Answer: ethical altruism
21. Annie argues that reducing carbon emissions in the United States will take a toll on the economy far exceeding any potential environmental benefits. Leo responds by arguing that several Scandinavian countries produce less carbon than the United States. What fallacy is Leo committing?
Answer: red herring
22. The two parts of an argument are _________ and _________.
Answer: premises and conclusions.
23. When considering learning more about the topic of stem cell research, the most appropriate website to visit is most likely to be _________.
24. Which of the following statements uses “innuendo”?
25. Which of the following is not an error we make when engaged in critical listening?
A. focusing on our own preconceived ideas
B. being distracted by external noise
C. filtering out irrelevant sounds
D. formulating our counter argument while the other person is still talking
Answer: filtering out irrelevant sounds
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