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Question

  1. Write a 450 word essay following the instructions located at the top of the assignment link in the L2 module.

Objectives

  1. Compare and contrastthe settlement of the colonies
    • How did the proprietary colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia and the Carolinas differ from the English colonies?
    • How did the proprietary colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia and the Carolinas differ from the English colonies?
  2. Identify the causes of deteriorating relations between Native Americans and the colonists, and describe the wars that took place.
  3. Explain
    • why Europeans and planters shifted from indentured servitude to slave labor.
    • the slave system that developed in the Southern Colonies.
    • the Enlightenment and how it impacted social and political thought in the American colonies.
    • the causes for the French and Indian War and describe the following:
      • How the English and French persuaded rival Indian nations to fight on each side.
      • The treaty that ended the war
      • How England’s war debt began to impact the colonies
    • a brief overview of the Great Awakening and explain why it was significant.
  4. Describe
    • the society, living conditions and economy in the New England colonies
    • the slave catching system
    • Triangular Trade
    • the Middle Passage
    • England’s Glorious Revolution and how it resulted in salutary neglect” for the colonies.

Answer

Several aspects such as differences in proprietary and English colonies, poor relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans and slavery characterized the period colonization of North America. All British colonies in North America represented the vast interests of the British monarch and its intention to increases its influence across the globe[1]. For this reason, all colonies paid homage to the monarchy and its interests. In fact, all colonies, regardless of the type of administration present, sent an official to London. The official acted as the liaison officer between the monarchy and the colonial administration.

However, there were several major differences between proprietary and English colonies[2]. One such difference was the type of administration where proprietary colonies belonged to individuals. In particular, the colonies belonged to lords in England who had the authority to appoint governors in the colonies. On the contrary, the King of England held the English colonies directly. What is more, the King acted as the ultimate authority in these colonies. Another difference is that citizens in proprietary colonies enjoyed increased freedom. Indeed, there were very many regulatory organs in English colonies including the office of the governor and governing council in English colonies that curtailed freedom in these colonies.

Another highlight of colonization on North America was the poor relationship between the colonialists and Native Americans. In fact, the poor relationship often led to armed conflicts. One of the main causes of war was control over land. Without a doubt, land is an important resource that was the basis for all production activities in the eighteenth century. Some of the wars such as Pequot war pitted the Pequot, a native Indian tribe, and colonialists. The Pequot tribe had managed to overpower other tribes thus the entry of the colonists disrupted the status quo. Another cause of war was culture conflict. Apparently, the colonists expected the Native American tribes to conform to their culture and traditions[3]. However, this was not the case as the tribes were keen on safeguarding their culture and customs that led to open hostility and war.

Slavery is another aspect that characterized colonialist period. The main cause of the shift from indentured servitude to slavery was the rise in the demand of labor for plantation agriculture[4]. Indeed, most settlers owned plantations and due to the need to break even quickly, the settlers opted for slave labor. Certainly, slavery represents a “dark spot” in American history as inhumane slave catching systems and trade characterized it. Specifically, the slave catchers residing on the West African coast identified healthy individuals who would survive the Middle passage. The middle passage was part of the larger triangular trade and it involved the transportation of Africans to the Americas to work as slaves in the plantations.  On the other hand, the triangular trade involved the exchange of good and slaves among the three continents. In particular, slaves from Africa worked on plantations in the Americas where the produce that included tobacco and sugar was exported to Europe. However, the enlightenment era brought some sought of reprieve to slaves as leaders and abolitionists called for elimination of the slavery. In particular, they advocated for equal human rights and respect for human dignity.

Bibliography

Bales Kevin and Ron Soodalter, The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today, Los Angeles: University of California, 2013

Beard Charles and Mary Ritter-Beard, History of the United States. New York: Vertlag, 2011

Gilbert, Adrian, Encyclopedia of Warfare: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day New  York: Routledge, 2013

Linda Wirkner, Learning about America’s Colonial Period with Graphic Organizers, Washington, DC: Rosen Classroom, 2006

[1] Charles Beard and Mary Ritter-Beard, History of the United States (New York: Vertlag, 2011) 11

[2] Linda Wirkner, Learning about America’s Colonial Period with Graphic Organizers (Washington, DC:Rosen Classroom, 2006) 13

[3] Adrian Gilbert, Encyclopedia of Warfare: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day (New York: Routledge, 2013) 116

[4] Kevin Bales and Ron Soodalter, The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today (Los Angeles: University of California, 2013) 114

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