saint CRM341 exam 1 2017

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1. In the 1970’s the first automated fingerprint identification systems were developed. They are called:


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D. None of the above

Answer: AFIS

2. The two layers to friction skin are:

A. Epidermis and Dermis

B. Inside and Outside

C. Ulnar and Radial

D. None of the above

Answer:Epidermis and Dermis

3. Friction Skin Identification is an applied science.

A. True

B. False

Answer: . True

4. Hermann Welcker conducted the first study into the permanence of the details of friction ridges, and the study took 34 years.

A. True

B. False

Answer: True

5. Friction skin is permanent and is formed during the 8th month of fetal life.

A. True

B. False

Answer: False

6. What are the three main regions of the palm?

A. Hypothenar, Thenar, and Regional

B. Interdigital, Thenar, and Hypothenar

C. Interdigital, Thenar, and Hyperthenar

D. Thenar, Regional, and Interregional

Answer: Interdigital, Thenar, and Hypothenar

7. What are the basic tenets of friction skin identification?

A. Friction skin is permanent and unique

B. None of the above

C. Friction skin is unique but not permanent

D. Friction skin is permanent but not unique

Answer: Friction skin is unique but not permanent

8. What is anthropometry? How is it related to the discipline of fingerprint evidence?

Answer: Anthropometry is a series of ordered measuring approach that indicate quantitatively the dimensions of the human body and skeleton.

Anthropometry is the measurement of physical attributes of human beings, such as head width, length of little finger, length of torso, etc. The technique was originally designed for the purpose of studying the variation of human physical characteristics, and was quickly adapted to create an early identification system.

9. Why do identical twins have different fingerprints? How would you explain this in words to a jury?

Answer: Fingerprints are partially determined by DNA. This explains why a pair of identical twins might appear to have similar fingerprints at first. Environmental factors from inside the womb also contribute to fetal fingerprint development, ensuring that identical twins’ fingerprints aren’t the same


The biological variations are a result of the environmental influences that occur during fetal development. On the other hand, identical twins develop within a single egg that divides into two, resulting in the two people having the exact same DNA.

Due to their common DNA, they have many physical similarities, including the same skin tone, eye color, and hair color. In fact, one in four sets of identical twins are thought to mimic one another.

The physical look of identical twins can nonetheless vary slightly due to environmental circumstances, which is essentially how other people can tell them apart. The following variances may be present: height and weight.

10. Identify four (4) key contributors to the field of fingerprint identification; also describe how their contribution has influenced the discipline.


Sir Francis Galton, a British Anthropologist and cousin to Charles Darwin, publishes the first book on fingerprints.
In his book, Galton identifies the individuality and uniqueness of fingerprints. The unique characteristics of fingerprints, as
identified by Galton, will officially become known as minutiae, however they are sometimes still referred to as Galton’s
Details. Galton’s intensive use of measurement methodologies led him to discover and establish fingerprinting as a reliable method of identification. Having collected hundreds of fingerprint samples, Galton created a taxonomic classification system still largely in use by forensic scientists of the twenty-first century.

Sir Edward Henry, an Inspector General of Police in Bengal, India, develops the first system of classifying
fingerprints. This system of classifying fingerprints. This system of classifying fingerprints was first adopted as the official
system in England, and eventually spread throughout. By 1900, Sir Edward Richard Henry, developed a system for classifying fingerprints that is still in use today. At the turn of the 20th century, fingerprinting was rapidly adopted by police departments and governments around the world as a way to positively identify people.

Juan Vucetich (1858-1925), an Argentinian police official, devised the first workable system of fingerprint identification, and pioneered the first use of fingerprint evidence in a murder investigation. Vucetich’s system was an expansion of the three patterns established by Galton: the arch, the loop, and the whorl. However, Vucetich further divided the loop into internal loop (left slope) and external loop (right slope) categories, creating four types of patterns: arch, internal loop, external loop, and whorl.

Doctor Henry Faulds he is responsible for developing the fingerprint identification system that is used throughout Europe and North America. In conjunction with his research, Henry published Classification and Uses of Finger Prints. As the head of Scotland Yard, he also led the transition from anthropometry to fingerprint identification. Henry Faulds (1843-1930), born in Ayrshire, studied at the University of Glasgow from 1865-1871. He was among the pioneering researchers of modern day fingerprint technology and the forensic application of fingerprints. 

12. Who published the first book on the science of fingerprints? What were the book’s most important contributions to understanding fingerprints?

Answer: Francis Galton published the first book on the subject of fingerprinting.

The book’s most important contributions were to demonstrate that no two prints are identical and that an individual’s prints remain unchanged from year to year.

13. Are the prints found on the soles of the feet the same as those found on fingertips? Why or why not? Who authored a text describing this phenomenon?

Answer: No, the prints found on the soles of the feet are not the same as those found on fingertips. If we look at our feet, we would find we have different footprints and toe prints. Alfred Hale, Ph.

14. What Saint Leo Core Value is most applicable to the use of the Bertillon method for identifying an individual? Can you articulate why this is so?

Answer: Saint Leo Core Value that is most applicable to the use of the Bertillon method for identifying an individual is accuracy. This is because the Bertillon method relies on very precise measurements in order to accurately identify an individual. 

Step-by-Step explanation

The Bertillon method for identifying an individual is a system of measurements that was developed in the late 19th century. This method uses specific measurements of the human body, such as the length of the head or the size of the feet, to identify individuals. This system was designed to be more accurate than previous methods of identification, such as using facial features or scars. The accuracy of the Bertillon method makes it ideal for use in law enforcement and other situations where it is important to correctly identify individuals. 

This method has been used to help solve crimes and catch criminals who might otherwise have gone undetected. It has also been used to reunite families after disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, when traditional methods of identification are not possible. While the Bertillon method is very accurate, it does have some limitations. One limitation is that this system can only be used to identify individuals who are already known to authorities. Another limitation is that this system requires special equipment and trained personnel in order to be used properly. 

Despite these limitations, the Bertillon method remains an important tool for law enforcement and other organizations that need to accurately identify individuals. The Saint Leo Core Value of accuracy is most applicable to the use of the Bertillon method for identifying an individual because this system relies on very precise measurements in order to correctly identify individuals. This method of identification is essential for law enforcement and other organizations that need to accurately identify individuals in order to catch criminals or solve crimes. The Bertillon method has helped reunite families after disasters and has been used in a variety of other situations where it is important to correctly identify individuals. 

15. What is meant by the phrase “natural law”? Does it have an impact on how fingerprints are collected or used as a means of criminal identification?

Answer: Every object, whether created in nature or made by man isunique. This basic fact is referred to as the natural law ofvariation

16. In your opinion, what is the significance of Dr.Babler’s testifying at a Daubert hearing?

Answer: The significance of Dr. Babler testifying at a Daubert hearingin 1999 indicated that fingerprints and all areas of frictionskin, including individual ridge units, are unique

17. What is the dermal papillae and why is it important in fingerprinting?

Answer: The dermal papillae is the layer of cells between the epidermis and dermis, that is responsible for determining the form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin. fetus, the ridge patterns will remain unchanged throughout life except to enlarge during growth.

18. What major advance in fingerprint technology was pioneered by Juan Vucetich and Sir Richard Henry? What was the importance of this advance?

Answer: Vucetich and Henry pioneered the creation of classification systems capable of filing many thousands of prints in a logical and searchable sequence This allowed law enforcement officials to quickly compare prints found at a crime scene to those of known criminals as an aid to identifying potential suspects.

19. In 1904, a specific event occurred which changed how two groups viewed fingerprint evidence. What was the event and who were the two groups? Also, what is the importance of these two groups coming to agreement on the importance of fingerprint evidence? Is this still relevant today?


1904 – Izen Whipple Professor of biology Published The Ventral Surface of the Mammalian Chiridium – With Special Reference to the Conditions Found in Man Foundation of the modern scientific knowledge into the formation of friction skin

1904 – First fingerprint identification bureaus in U.S. were established Due to fingerprint identification exhibits at St. Louis World’s Fair and the annual meeting of the International Association of Chiefs of Police at the same location Fingerprint identification was already well established in England and British possessions

20. Why is the West case so important to the fingerprint discipline? Why were the other methods identified not helpful?

Answer: The West case was important to the fingerprint discipline because it proved that no two person regardless of how similar their features have the same fingerprints. The fallibility of three systems of personal identification – photographs, Bertillon measurements and names – was demonstrated by this one case. The value of fingerprints as the gold standard for personal identification was established.

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