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In the final phase (17781781) of the American Revolution, the British
a. mounted their largest military assault against the Continental army.
b. badly overestimated the support of American Loyalists.
c. made a focused effort to win public support in the northern colonies.
d. concentrated their efforts on capturing individual Patriots.
e. began a policy of total war that resulted in several cities being burned to the ground.
In 1776, Abigail Adams was an advocate for
a. full gender equality in the new post-war nation.
b. a womans right to vote.
c. new protections for women against abusive and tyrannical men.
d. support for impoverished war widows.
The British military campaigns of 1777 saw
a. General William Howe stay in camp when he was supposed to have moved south.
b. General John Burgoyne suffer a major defeat at Saratoga.
c. a major American victory at Philadelphia.
d. the British surround and lay siege to George Washingtons army at Valley Forge.
e. the British retake Boston and set it afire.
In the Battle of Bunker Hill,
a. the Patriots suffered light casualties and won the battle.
b. the British suffered heavy casualties.
c. Benedict Arnold was wounded.
d. the British surrendered their main forces to the Patriots.
e. the Patriots refused to withdraw and were all killed.
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when states gave up their
a. power to regulate trade.
b. power to make war.
c. claims to western lands.
d. right to levy their own taxes.
e. plans for emancipation.
Who did the Congress send to London as a minister in 1784 to resolve the differences between the Confederation and the British regarding the peace treaty of 1783?
a. Benjamin Franklin
b. James Madison
c. John Jay
d. John Adams
e. George Washington
The Ordinances of 1784 and 1785 represented an attempt to
a. eliminate slavery in the western states.
b. compromise on the question of slavery expanding into the territories.
c. enhance the power of the central government.
d. gain redress from the English at the expense of Native Americans.
e. provide for the admission of new states into the union.
Under the Articles of Confederation in 1777 there was a federal
e. All these answers are .
Nine of the first ten amendments to the Constitution placed limits on the
b. new government.
c. rights of individuals.
e. presidential cabinet.
In the first national elections in 1789,
a. all the presidential electors cast their votes for George Washington.
b. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to be vice president.
c. the presidential inauguration was held in Philadelphia.
d. John Adams campaigned against George Washington.
e. Antifederalists won a convincing majority in the Senate.
According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Supreme Court was to be
a. composed of nine members.
b. the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.
c. directly elected by the people.
d. both composed of nine members and the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.
e. both composed of nine members and directly elected by the people.
The achievement of the Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was its resolution of the problem regarding
a. women and voting.
b. the definition of citizenship.
c. political representation.
d. states versus federal authority.
e. expansion of slavery into the territories.
As president, George Washington
a. had never envisioned a strong central government.
b. considered it his duty to resolve political controversies.
c. sought to dominate national politics.
d. grew concerned that the federal government was gaining too much power.
e. avoided personal involvement with the deliberations of Congress.
Which group opposed Alexander Hamiltons economic program on the grounds that they would bear a disproportionate tax burden?
c. the urban wealthy.
e. small farmers.
The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
a. gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism.
b. were aggressively used by the Adams administration to suppress public criticism.
c. were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
d. gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism, and were aggressively used by the Adams administration to that effect.
e. were aggressively used by the Adams administration to suppress public criticism until they were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
The two preeminent Republicans of the 1790s were
a. Alexander Hamilton and James Monroe.
b. John Adams and James Madison.
c. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
d. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
e. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
In the late 1790s, on the political scene,
a. the United States was deeply and bitterly divided.
b. the republican form of government had won over most skeptics.
c. the power of the Republicans was declining.
d. the United States had developed a clear two-party system.
e. there was considerable agreement over most important foreign policy questions.
In the 1790s, those who were labeled Republicans envisioned developing a nation that would
a. be highly commercial and urban.
b. be largely agricultural and rural.
c. be a leading world power.
d. eventually control most of North America.
e. eventually grant political rights to women and minorities as well as white men.
During the 1790s, regional support in the United States for Federalists was greatest in the
a. rural Deep South.
b. rural Far West.
e. mid-Atlantic region.
The Second Great Awakening
a. rejected the idea of the Trinity.
b. was consistent with the ideas of the Enlightenment.
c. helped promote universalism and unitarianism.
d. was confined to New England.
e. began as an effort by church establishments to revitalize their organizations.
Religious skepticism resulted in
a. the decline of universalism.
b. a growth of commitment to organized churches and denominations.
c. both the philosophy of unitarianism and a wave of revivalism.
d. the disestablishment of the Anglican Church.
e. no discernible effect on American religious life.
The message of the Second Great Awakening
a. called for an active and fervent piety.
b. restored the traditional belief in predestination.
c. incorporated the belief of skeptical rationalism.
d. found its greatest number of converts among young men.
e. was rejected by most women as being retrograde and reactionary.
As president, Thomas Jefferson
a. sought to convey the public image of a plain, ordinary citizen.
b. believed in a passive presidency.
c. gave the White House its name.
d. tended to keep talented Federalists in office despite objections from Republicans.
e. only served one term.
In 1802, what spurred President Jefferson to seek the building of a river fleet and to give the impression that the United States might ally with Great Britain?
a. a growing incidence of Indian attacks on western settlers
b. a Spanish attempt to readjust the northern border of its Florida colony
c. the arrival of a French invasion fleet near New York
d. a new French regulation restricting the use of the port of New Orleans by American ships
e. the capture of the island of Santo Domingo by a black revolutionary force
The Non-Intercourse Act reopened American trade with
a. Great Britain.
c. both Great Britain and France.
d. all nations except Great Britain and France.
e. all nations.
During his first term, President Thomas Jefferson
a. sought to create a tax on personal income.
b. restricted the sale of government lands to western settlers.
c. saw a doubling of the national debt.
d. eliminated all internal taxes.
e. drastically increased government spending.
During the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames
a. saw Tecumseh killed while serving as a brigadier general in the British army.
b. led to the long American occupation of Canada.
c. strengthened the resolve of the Indians in the Northwest.
d. saw British forces come from Canada to attack Detroit.
e. saw a surprise American attack in the heart of London.
The Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817 called for
a. the joint occupation of Oregon by France and the United States.
b. the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes by Britain and the United States.
c. France to pull out of the fur trade in the Great Lakes region.
d. a general trade agreement between the United States and France.
e. Spain to give up its claim to Florida, in exchange for navigation rights on the Mississippi.
In the War of 1812, Britain turned its full military attention to America after
a. Napoleons defeat at Waterloo.
b. Napoleons incarceration at Elba.
c. Napoleons catastrophic campaign against Russia.
d. the American invasion of Canada.
e. the American raid and burning of York.
In 1812, Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun could best be described as
e. war hawks.
a. had been paid for without any federal funds.
b. consisted only of a small number of private turnpikes.
c. included a National Road that reached as far as the Ohio River.
d. formed a network that connected most large towns and cities.
e. had for the most part been replaced by railroads.
Between 1800 and 1820, the population of the United States
a. nearly doubled.
b. reached five million.
c. saw its largest increases in southern states.
d. generally ignored the rocky soil of the Old Northwest.
e. All these answers are .
The Panic of 1819 resulted in a depression that lasted
a. six months.
b. one year.
c. two years.
d. four years.
e. six years.
Francis Cabot Lowells contribution to American textile mills included
a. the invention of the cotton spindle.
b. improving the power loom.
c. dramatically expanding the textile industry in the South.
d. improving the cotton gin.
e. organizing his workers by task into a primitive assembly line.
During the presidential campaign of 1828,
a. Republicans were able to effectively unite.
b. President Adams was accused of adultery.
c. Andrew Jackson was labeled a murderer.
d. the major election issue was the Bank of the United States.
e. John Quincy Adams gave a strong showing in the South.
In the presidential election of 1824,
a. Andrew Jackson received the most electoral votes and became president.
b. John Q. Adams received the second-most electoral votes and was elected president by the House of Representatives.
c. Henry Clay received the fourth-most electoral votes and was elected president by the House of Representatives.
d. William Crawford received the most electoral votes, but he died before a president was chosen.
e. None of these answers is .
The presidential administration of John Quincy Adams was
a. plagued by financial corruption.
b. noted for its inability to carry out its policies effectively.
c. widely popular in the South for its tariff policies.
d. successful in domestic policies, but had little success in foreign policies.
e. deeply antagonistic to the ideas behind Clays American System.
In the early nineteenth century, the explorer Stephen H. Long
a. agreed with the findings and conclusions of Zebulon Pike.
b. labeled the Great Plains the American breadbasket.
c. was one of the most colorful of the mountain men.
d. discovered the source of the Red River.
e. inadvertently brought the United States to the brink of war with Mexico.
In the early nineteenth century, mountain men
a. were mostly older settlers of an earlier era.
b. had little impact on the character of Far West society.
c. were the dominant segment of the population in the Far West.
d. frequently warred against Indian and Mexican peoples.
e. very often became intimately involved with Indian and Mexican women.
The writing of the Monroe Doctrine
a. had an immediate and dramatic effect on American policy.
b. was primarily based on the earlier writings of Thomas Jefferson.
c. was motivated by American interests in Hawaii.
d. deeply angered the European powers.
e. was an important example of American nationalism.