Free Cause and Effect Essay on Smoking

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Smoking Cause and Effect Essay Outline

Introduction  

Thesis: To understand the social and health implications of smoking it is essential to look into some of its causes and effects.

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Causes and effects of smoking is a broad application that’s require expound knowledge on the subject thus students need to purchase a research proposal to help them with the homework.

Body

Causes

Paragraph 1:

Peer pressure is the most prevalent cause of smoking.

  • Most people start smoking through the influence of their friends,
  • Smoking begins when most people are young; that is during adolescence and in their early twenties.
  • Quitting smoking due to addiction is difficult.
Paragraph 2:

Parenting style determines whether or not one will be a smoker.

  • A child whose parents were smokers is highly likely to become a smoker.
  • Children take after their parents’ behaviors.
Paragraph 3:

People are duped into believing that smoking relieves stress.

  • People engage in smoking as a way of managing stress.
  • Smoking does not relieve stress; instead, it increases it.
  • The level of stress in smokers is higher compared to non-smokers.
  • Effects

Effects

Paragraph 4:

Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer in the world.

  • Smoking causes cancer both in active and passive smokers.
  • Smoking also causes anxiety on the victim.
  • Smoking damages the lining of one’s lungs thus causing lung cancer.
  • Continued smoking leads to permanent damage to lung tissues.
Paragraph 5:

Smoking causes loss of sight.

  • Cataracts are the number one cause of blindness in the world.
  • Smokers are twice at the risk of developing cataracts than non-smokers.
  • AMD is the leading cause of permanent blindness in people aged 65years and above.
  • Smokers are three times likely to develop AMD than non-smokers.
Paragraph 6:

Smoking is one of the major causes of type-2 diabetes.

  • 40% of smokers are likely to develop type-2 diabetes.
  • Diabetic smokers make it hard to control the disease progress and insulin levels thus increasing their chances of dying from the disease.
  • Diabetic smokers are also likely to suffer from other health complications linked to diabetes such as heart failure, kidney problems, high blood pressure, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy.
Paragraph 7:

Smoking is the number one cause of death in the US among all the causes of preventable deaths.

  • 480,000 deaths in the country are caused by cigarette smoking each year.
  • This translates to 20% of the total yearly deaths.

Conclusion:

Smoking is a general lifestyle behavior among young people. People engage in the practice as a way of having fun. Peer pressure is one of the leading factors that drive people to smoke. Parenting style also contributes to the chances of one becoming a smoker. Most people underestimate the health risks associated with smoking. Lung cancer, blindness, and type-2 diabetes are some of the few health effects attributed to smoking.

Learn the easy tips to help you craft a quality cause and effect essay from a good topic selected that will give you great ideas.

Cause and Effect Essay on Smoking

Introduction

Smoking is considered a lifestyle behavior. Many people engage in the practice without the awareness of the health risks it is associated with. Smoking is one of the most addictive lifestyle behaviors and has life-changing implications. It has been termed as one of the most significant health challenges that health organizations are facing today (Onor et al., 2017). According to reports by World Health Organization, there were more than 1 billion smokers all over the world in 2014. To understand the social and health implications of smoking, it is essential to look into some of its causes and effects.

Peer pressure is the most prevalent cause of smoking. According to research, most smokers start the smoking habit at a tender age. During adolescence and in the early twenties, most people are infatuated with friendships (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). At this stage in life, friends hold great value and meaning in individuals. It is at this age that most people are either in their final years in high school or just starting off in college. Most young people particularly those at the college and high school levels engage in various dangerous and life-harming activities, one of which is smoking (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). Often, their intent is not to become smokers but to enjoy the experience of being young and feel a celebrated status over their peers. If one belongs to a group whose members are smokers, then they too will likely start smoking (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). Later in life, such people try to drop the smoking behavior, but it becomes challenging due to withdrawal effects.

Parenting style is another factor that may determine whether or not one will become a smoker. The manner in which a child is raised contributes significantly to their behavior as adults (Gilman et al., 2009). Most children look up to their parents and will adopt most of the lifestyle behaviors portrayed by the parents (Gilman et al., 2009). There are parents who have the habit of smoking in the presence of their children, a behavior which is utterly irresponsible (Gilman et al., 2009). Children get the idea that smoking is not unhealthy if their parents do it in their presence (Gilman et al., 2009). Once such children grow up, they develop a liking for tobacco smoking without knowing that it is an unhealthy lifestyle behavior.

There is also a misconception that smoking acts as strain reliever. This delusion blinds most people that smoking helps one relieve stress. Many people therefore find themselves engaging in the habit as a stress management strategy (Choi, Ota & Watanuki, 2015). Noteworthy, continued smoking leads to addiction, thereby making it very difficult for one to do away with the habit once they start it. Research has shown that smoking does not relieve stress, instead it increases it (Choi, Ota & Watanuki, 2015). The level of stress in smokers is twice as high as that in non-smokers.

Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer in the world, according to research. The practice is likely to cause lung cancer both in active and passive smokers. Passive smokers are people who do not smoke but are exposed to cigarette smoke (Onor et al., 2017). According to medics, smoking damages the lining of one’s lungs thus causing lung cancer. When one inhales cigarette smoke, which consists of cancer-causing carcinogens, lung tissues start changing immediately (Onor et al., 2017). If one smokes for a small period then quits, the lung tissues will repair themselves thus reducing the chances of contracting lung cancer (Onor et al., 2017). However, continued smoking leads to permanent damage of the lung tissues to the extent that they become irreparable. These damages accelerate the development of lung cancer.

Smoking also causes loss of sight. According to medical research, cataracts are the number one cause of blindness in the world. Cataract is the blurring of the eyes standard lens. Studies reveal that smokers are twice at the risk of developing cataracts than non-smokers (Kennedy et al., 2017). Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) has an impact on the retina, which is the part of the eye that is responsible for the sharp vision that people use while driving and reading. AMD has been termed as the leading cause of permanent blindness in people aged 65years and above (Kennedy et al., 2017). Research shows that smokers are three times likely to develop AMD than non-smokers (Kennedy et al., 2017). However, if one quits smoking at an early stage, the damage caused to the eyes is repairable, but prolonged smoking leads to increased destruction of the eyes that in turn translates to permanent blindness.

Further, smoking is one of the major causes of type-2 diabetes. Research shows that 40% of smokers are likely to develop type-2 diabetes (Onor et al., 2017). Diabetic people who smoke are likely to experience difficulties in managing insulin levels in their bodies even with prescribed medications. Since increased smoking leads to increased chances of developing type-2 diabetes, diabetic smokers make it hard to control the disease’s progress and insulin levels thus increasing their chances of dying from it (Onor et al., 2017). Diabetic smokers are also likely to suffer from other health complications linked to diabetes such as heart failure, kidney problems, high blood pressure, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy (Onor et al., 2017). For a diabetic person, quitting smoking can help control insulin levels in the body.

Even more disheartening is the fact that even though preventable, cigarette smoking is the number one cause of death in the US among all the causes of deaths that are preventable. The same applies to the United Kingdom. In the US alone, 480,000 deaths are caused by cigarette smoking each year, translating to 20% of the total yearly deaths (Marshall, 2016). The total deaths resulting from a combination of the following causes every year is less than the number of deaths caused by cigarette smoking: firearm-related accidents, motor vehicle injuries, alcohol use, illegal drug use, and HIV. This further shows the seriousness of the effects of smoking on human health.

Conclusion

Smoking is a general lifestyle behavior among young and older people alike. People engage in the practice as a way of having fun. Peer pressure is one of the leading factors that drive people to smoke. Parenting style also contributes to the chances of one becoming a smoker. Many people underestimate the health risks associated with smoking. Lung cancer, blindness, and type-2 diabetes are some of the health effects associated with this habit.

References

Choi, D., Ota, S., & Watanuki, S. (2015). Does cigarette smoking relieve stress? Evidence from the event-related potential (ERP). International Journal of Psychophysiology98(3), 470-476.

Gilman, S. E., Rende, R., Boergers, J., Abrams, D. B., Buka, S. L., Clark, M. A., … & Lloyd-Richardson, E. E. (2009). Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics123(2), e274-e281.

Kennedy, R. D., Hammond, D., Spafford, M. M., Douglas, O., Brûlé, J., Fong, G. T., & Schultz, A. S. (2016). Educating smokers about the risk of blindness–insights to improve tobacco product health warning labels. Tobacco Induced Diseases14(1), 30.

Marshall, T. (2016). Public opinion, public policy, and smoking: the transformation of American attitudes and cigarette use, 1890–2016 (1st ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Onor, I. O., Stirling, D. L., Williams, S. R., Bediako, D., Borghol, A., Harris, M. B., … & Sarpong, D. F. (2017). Clinical effects of cigarette smoking: epidemiologic impact and review of pharmacotherapy options. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health14(10), 1147.

Ukwayi, J. K., Eja, O. F., & Unwanede, C. C. (2012). Peer pressure and tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of the University of Calabar, Cross River State. Higher Education Studies2(3), 92.

Smoking Essay 2: The Effects of Smoking on Health and Social Care

A Sample Smoking Essay Outline

Introduction

Thesis: Smoking is harmful to nearly all body organs and thus quitting has health benefits.

Body

Paragraph 1:

Smoking damages the human heart and interferes with normal blood circulation.

  • This increases the risks of such conditions as cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart attack, and coronary heart disease.
  • The heart is made to work faster and thereby strained.
  • The cigarette contents increase the risks of blood clots.
  • Smoking leads to furring of the coronary arteries.

Paragraph 2: 

Smoking can cause lung disease.

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the lung diseases.
  • Most cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking.
  • An attack can be triggered or made worse by tobacco smoke in asthmatic people.

Paragraph 3:

Smoking can cause serious damages to the mouth and throat.

  • It can cause strained teeth, bad breath and gum disease.
  • It causes an increased cancer risk in the gullet, voice box, throat, tongue, and lips.

Paragraph 4:

Smoking can make a woman to experience difficulties in becoming pregnant.

  • There are higher risks for a pregnant smoker to miscarry.
  • They may have their baby born with a cleft palate and/or cleft lip,
  • They may give birth before time to a baby with an abnormally low birth weight,
  • They may have an ectopic pregnancy.

Paragraph 5:

Quitting smoking reduces the risk of many diseases caused by the habit.

  • Reduced chances of dying from illnesses that are smoking-related
  • Quitters have substantial life expectancy gains in comparison to those who continue to smoke.

Paragraph 6: 

It is only through quitting that one would be free from the problems caused by smoking.

  • Set the stage to quit by mentally preparing oneself.
  • Control cravings of smoking by using nicotine replacement products.
  • Apply SmokEnders’ behavioral changes in completely breaking emotional bonds developed between smokers and cigarettes.

Conclusion

Smoking affects almost every organ of the human body and is thus detrimental to health. It causes fatal diseases such as cancer, heart disease, COPD, and can also damage the mouth and throat. Quitting is highly recommendable.

Smoking Essay Sample

The Harmful Effects of Smoking on Health and Social Care Essay

Introduction

There are many chemicals contained in tobacco smoke that pose health risks both to smokers and nonsmokers. It can be harmful to even breathe a little tobacco smoke. “Of the more than 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, at least 250 are known to be harmful, including hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and ammonia” (National Cancer Institute, 2017). At least 69 of these 250 known harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke cause cancer. This explains why cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable premature deaths in the United States. Overall, smoking is harmful to nearly all body organs and thus quitting has health benefits.

Smoking damages the human heart and interferes with normal blood circulation. This increases the risks of such conditions as cerebrovascular disease (damage to arteries supplying blood to the brain), peripheral vascular disease (damaged blood vessels), stroke, heart attack, and coronary heart disease. The heart is made to work faster by nicotine and carbon monoxide from the smoke thereby straining it. The cigarette contents also increase the risks of one experiencing blood clots in their circulation system. In addition, smoking leads to furring of the coronary arteries as the lining of the arteries are damaged by other chemicals in the cigarette smoke. As a matter of fact, one faces a double risk of having a heart attack by smoking (NHS, 2018). Their risk of dying from coronary heart disease is also twice that of nonsmokers.

According to CDC (2018), “Smoking can cause lung disease by damaging your airways and the small air sacs (alveoli) found in your lungs.” Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the lung diseases caused by smoking and it includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It is also noteworthy that most cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking. An attack can be triggered or made worse by tobacco smoke in people who have asthma. Compared to nonsmokers, the chances of smokers dying from COPD are 12 to 13 times higher. Additionally, smoking causes a cancer that forms in the intestines (rectum or colon) known as colorectal cancer and is the second leading contributor to cancer deaths in the U.S. (American Lung Association, 2018). A smoker has higher risks of developing this type of cancer.

Smoking can also cause serious damages to the mouth and throat. It can cause such unattractive problems as strained teeth, bad breath, and gum disease, as well as damage one’s sense of taste. The most serious damage caused by smoking in the throat and mouth is an increased cancer risk in the gullet (esophagus), voice box, throat, tongue, and lips. This risk increases with an increase in the intake of tobacco contents. “More than 93% of oropharyngeal cancers (cancer in part of the throat) are caused by smoking” (NHS, 2018). This implies that nonsmokers have a greatly reduced risk of developing mouth and throat cancers.

Further, smoking can make a woman to experience difficulties in becoming pregnant. Even if they succeed at conceiving, there are higher risks for a pregnant smoker to miscarry. In addition, they may have their baby born with a cleft palate and/or cleft lip, they may give birth before time to a baby with an abnormally low birth weight, and they may also have an ectopic pregnancy. Moreover, if a woman smokes during or after pregnancy, her infant would have higher risks of dying from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (National Cancer Institute, 2017). This implies that even after birth, a mother’s consumption of tobacco contents is harmful to the baby because the baby feeds from her breasts. Furthermore, according to CDC (2018), a pregnant smoker may likely experience stillbirth whereby her baby may die before birth.

Quitting smoking reduces the risk of many diseases caused by the habit, including COPD, heart disease, and cancer. Data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey indicate that if one quits smoking, they have reduced chances of dying from illnesses that are smoking-related as compared to those who continues to smoke. “Smokers who quit before age 40 reduce their chance of dying prematurely from smoking-related diseases by about 90%, and those who quit by age 45-54 reduce their chance of dying prematurely by about two-thirds” (National Cancer Institute, 2017). Generally, quitters have substantial life expectancy gains in comparison to those who continue to smoke. According to the U.S. National Health Interview Survey, quitters aged between 25 and 34 live longer for about ten years, 35 and 44 for about nine years, 45 and 54 for about six years, and 55 and 64 for about four years.

It is therefore only through quitting that one would be free from the problems caused by smoking. In this respect, there can never be specific solutions to specific health problems caused by smoking; rather, the problems may be best addressed through solutions whose target would be to make one quit. One of the solutions, as suggested by Usman and Davidson (2016), would be to set the stage to quit by mentally preparing oneself. One may also quit by controlling cravings of smoking by using nicotine replacement products which should be used based on consultations with a doctor. Another solution may be to apply SmokEnders’ behavioral changes in completely breaking emotional bonds developed between smokers and cigarettes.

Conclusion

Smoking affects almost every organ of the human body and is thus detrimental to health. It causes fatal diseases such as cancer, heart disease, COPD, and can also damage the mouth and throat. It results into premature deaths that could otherwise be prevented. It also affects pregnant women who may experience increased risks of orofacial clefts in infants, ectopic pregnancy, sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, stillbirth, and preterm delivery. As such, quitting smoking has several health benefits and generally increases one’s life expectancy. This is so irrespective of the age at which one quits the habit.

References

American Lung Association. (2018). “10 health effects caused by smoking you didn’t know about”. American Lung Association. Retrieved May 28, 2018 from http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/tobacco/reports-resources/sotc/by-the-numbers/10-health-effects-caused-by-smoking.html

CDC. (2018). “Health effects of cigarette smoking”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 28, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/index.htm

National Cancer Institute. (2017). “Harms of cigarette smoking and health benefits of quitting”. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved May 28, 2018 from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/tobacco/cessation-fact-sheet#q8

NHS. (2018). “How smoking affects your body”. NHS. Retrieved May 28, 2018 from https://www.nhs.uk/smokefree/why-quit/smoking-health-problems

Usman, M. & Davidson, J. (2016). Tips on how to stop smoking. Mendon, MA: Mendon Cottage Books.

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