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Cause and Effect Essay on Smoking

Smoking is considered a lifestyle behavior. Many people engage in smoking without the awareness of the health risks it is attributed to. Smoking is one of most addictive lifestyle behaviors and has life-changing implications. It has been termed as one of the most significant health challenges that health organizations are facing today (Onor et al., 2017). According to reports by world health organization, there were more than 1billion smokers all over the world in 2014.  To understand the social and health implications of smoking, it is essential to look into some of its causes and effects.

Peer pressure is the most prevalent cause of smoking (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). According to research, most smokers start the smoking habit at their young ages. During adolescent and in the early twenties, most people are infatuated with friendships (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). At this stage in life, friends hold great value and meaning in individuals. It is at this age that most people are either in their final years in high school or college. Most young people particularly at the college and high school stage, engage in lots of dangerous and life harming activities, one of them being smoking (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). Their crucial intent is not to become smokers but to enjoy the experience of being young and realized a celebrated status over their peers. If one belongs to a group which some of its members are smokers, then they too will become smokers (Ukwayi, Eja & Unwanede, 2012). Later in life, such people try dropping the smoking behavior, but it becomes challenging due to withdrawal effects.

Parenting style determines whether or not one will be a smoker (Gilman et al., 2009). The manner in which a child has been raised contributes significantly to their behavior as adults (Gilman et al., 2009). Most children look up after their parents and will adopt most of the lifestyle behaviors portrayed by parents (Gilman et al., 2009). There are parents with the habit of smoking in the presence of their children, which is a very irresponsible behavior (Gilman et al., 2009). Children get the idea that smoking is not unhealthy if their parents do it in their presence (Gilman et al., 2009). Once such children grow up, they develop tobacco without the knowledge that it is an unhealthy lifestyle behavior.

There is a misconception that smoking acts as strain reliever (Choi, Ota & Watanuki, 2015). The delusion blinds most people that smoking helps one relieve stress. Most people, therefore, find themselves engaging in the smoking habit as a stress management strategy (Choi, Ota & Watanuki, 2015). Continued smoking leads to addiction making it very difficult for one to do away with the habit. Research has shown that smoking does not relieve stress, instead it increases it (Choi, Ota & Watanuki, 2015). The level of stress in smokers is twice as high as in non-smokers.

Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer in the world (Onor et al., 2017).  Smoking is likely to cause cancer both in active and passive smokers. Passive smokers are people who do not smoke but are exposed to cigarette smoke (Onor et al., 2017). According to medics, smoking damages the lining of one’s lungs thus causing lung cancer. When one inhales cigarette smoke, which consists of cancer-causing carcinogens, the lung tissues start changing immediately (Onor et al., 2017). If one smokes for a small period then quits, the lung tissues will repair themselves thus reducing the chances of contracting lung cancer (Onor et al., 2017). However, continued smoking leads to permanent damage to lung tissues to the extent that they are irreparable, and these damages accelerate development of lung cancer.

Smoking causes loss of sight (Kennedy et al., 2017). According to medical research, cataracts are the number one cause of blindness in the world. Cataract is the blurring of the eyes standard lens. Studies reveal that smokers are twice at the risk of developing cataracts than non-smokers (Kennedy et al., 2017). AMD (age-related macular Degeneration) has an impact on the retina, which is the part of the eye that is responsible for the sharp vision that people use in driving and reading. AMD has been termed as the leading cause of permanent blindness in people aged 65years and above (Kennedy et al., 2017). Research shows that smokers are three times likely to develop AMD than non-smokers (Kennedy et al., 2017). However, if one quits smoking at an early stage, the damage caused to the eyes is repairable, but prolonged smoking leads to increased destruction of the eyes that in turn translates to permanent blindness.

Smoking is one of the major causes of type-2 diabetes. Research shows that 40% of smokers are likely to develop type-2 diabetes (Onor et al., 2017). Diabetic people, who smoke are likely to experience difficulties in managing insulin levels in their bodies even with prescribed medications. Increased smoking leads to increased chances of developing type-2 diabetes, diabetic smokers makes it hard to control the disease progress and insulin levels thus increasing their chances of dying from the disease (Onor et al., 2017). Diabetic smokers are also likely to suffer from other health complications linked to diabetes such as heart failure, kidney problems, high blood pressure, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy (Onor et al., 2017). As a diabetic person quitting smoking can help control insulin levels in their body.

Smoking is a general lifestyle behavior among young people. People engage in the practice as a way of having fun. Peer pressure is one of the leading factors that drive people to smoke. Parenting style also contributes to the chances of one becoming a smoker. Most people underestimate the health risks associated with smoking. Lung cancer, blindness, and type-2 diabetes are some of the few health effects attributed to smoking.

References

Choi, D., Ota, S., & Watanuki, S. (2015). Does cigarette smoking relieve stress? Evidence from the event-related potential (ERP). International Journal of Psychophysiology98(3), 470-476.

Gilman, S. E., Rende, R., Boergers, J., Abrams, D. B., Buka, S. L., Clark, M. A., … & Lloyd-Richardson, E. E. (2009). Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics123(2), e274-e281.

Kennedy, R. D., Hammond, D., Spafford, M. M., Douglas, O., Brûlé, J., Fong, G. T., & Schultz, A. S. (2016). Educating smokers about the risk of blindness–insights to improve tobacco product health warning labels. Tobacco induced diseases14(1), 30.

Onor, I. O., Stirling, D. L., Williams, S. R., Bediako, D., Borghol, A., Harris, M. B., … & Sarpong, D. F. (2017). Clinical effects of cigarette smoking: epidemiologic impact and review of pharmacotherapy options. International journal of environmental research and public health14(10), 1147.

Ukwayi, J. K., Eja, O. F., & Unwanede, C. C. (2012). Peer pressure and tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of the University of Calabar, Cross River State. Higher Education Studies2(3), 92.

 

Smoking Cause and Effect Essay Outline

 Thesis:

To understand the social and health implications of smoking it is essential to look into some of its causes and effects.

Body

Causes

Paragraph 1:

Peer pressure is the most prevalent cause of smoking.

  • Most people start smoking through the influence of their friends,
  • Smoking begins when most people are young; that is during adolescence and in their early twenties.
  • Quitting smoking due to addiction is difficult.

Paragraph 2:

Parenting style determines whether or not one will be a smoker.

  • A child whose parents were smokers is highly likely to become a smoker.
  • Children take after their parents’ behaviors.

Paragraph 3:

People are duped into believing that smoking relieves stress.

  • People engage in smoking as a way of managing stress.
  • Smoking does not relieve stress; instead, it increases it.
  • The level of stress in smokers is higher compared to non-smokers.
  • Effects

Paragraph 4:

Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer in the world.

  • Smoking causes cancer both in active and passive smokers.
  • Smoking damages the lining of one’s lungs thus causing lung cancer.
  • Continued smoking leads to permanent damage to lung tissues.

Paragraph 5:

Smoking causes loss of sight.

  • Cataracts are the number one cause of blindness in the world.
  • Smokers are twice at the risk of developing cataracts than non-smokers.
  • AMD is the leading cause of permanent blindness in people aged 65years and above.
  • Smokers are three times likely to develop AMD than non-smokers.

Paragraph 6:

Smoking is one of the major causes of type-2 diabetes.

  • 40% of smokers are likely to develop type-2 diabetes.
  • Diabetic smokers make it hard to control the disease progress and insulin levels thus increasing their chances of dying from the disease.
  • Diabetic smokers are also likely to suffer from other health complications linked to diabetes such as heart failure, kidney problems, high blood pressure, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy.

Conclusion:

Smoking is a general lifestyle behavior among young people. People engage in the practice as a way of having fun. Peer pressure is one of the leading factors that drive people to smoke. Parenting style also contributes to the chances of one becoming a smoker. Most people underestimate the health risks associated with smoking. Lung cancer, blindness, and type-2 diabetes are some of the few health effects attributed to smoking.

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