Consider the following solvent pairs when mixed: which are immiscible miscible?

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Question 1. Consider the following solvent pairs when mixed: which are immiscible/miscible? If the solvents are immiscible, which solvent would be in the top layer?

Question 2.Phenols don’t exhibit the same pKa values as other alcohols; they are generally more acidic. Using the knowledge that hydrogen acidity is directly related to the stability of the anion formed (the conjugate base), explain why phenol is much more acidic than cyclohexanol.

Question 3. The pKa of 2,4-dinitrophenol is 3.96. Could you separate it from benzoic acid using the extraction procedures in this experiment?

What are Miscible Liquids?

Chemical molecules interact with other chemicals in different ways. When molecules of the same compound or element interact, they form a uniform liquid or solid. On the other hand, molecules of two different compounds can react with each other to form completely different compounds. Or, they could mix; some liquids are miscible while others are immiscible. 

So, what are miscible liquids? Miscible liquids mix completely to form one uniform liquid with no layers or precipitates. Miscibility is a chemical term that refers to the ability of liquids to dissolve completely into each other to form one uniform distinct layer. 

A quick example of miscible liquids is acetic acid and water. The vinegar we use in the kitchen is a mixture of the two liquids. But you never see a visible layer between the water and acetic acid because they are miscible. Instead, the vinegar bottle only has a continuous liquid of the perfect mixture created by water and acetic acid.

The gasoline we pump into our cars is a mixture of dozens of hydrocarbon-based liquids, including butane, pentane, benzene, and xylenes. But, a uniform layer comes out of the pump because the liquids are miscible.

What are Immiscible Liquids?

Immiscible liquids do not mix. Instead, they form a layer that separates them and prevents them from forming one uniform solution. Immiscibility is the inability of liquids to mix into each other completely. In short, immiscible liquids do not “dissolve” into each other.

For instance, water and olive oil do not mix, no matter how hard you stir them. Instead, the oil settles at the top of the water. A boundary (meniscus) separates the two liquids. The liquids stay on different sides of the meniscus.

What is the Difference Between Miscible and Immiscible Liquids

Miscible liquids form a uniform mixture, and whole immiscible liquids form layers of separation.

When you mix two miscible liquids, they form a uniform solution with no distinct layer. However, immiscible liquids form a meniscus that prevents them from forming a uniform mixture.

Miscible liquids are homogenous, so the density of the mixture spreads throughout the entire space. The density of the resulting solution is the same at the top as at the bottom of the bottle. 

However, immiscible liquids are inhomogeneous. The moisture density is unevenly distributed throughout the space. The solution density at the top differs from what you find at the bottom.

Miscibility occurs as a result of chemical polarity. Liquids are formed by several molecules of the same or different element or compound. Molecules are formed when atoms exchange their electrons.

When shared electrons spend their time rotating around one atom, it will create a negative charge towards that side and a positive charge on the other side. Such a molecule is called “polar” as the electrons form an asymmetric shape.

Some molecules have electrons that spend equal time on both sides of the atoms. So, such molecules have electrons in symmetric shapes and are thus not charged on any side, which makes them nonpolar.

Polar liquids are miscible, while non-polar liquids are immiscible.

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