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1.       Marginal revenue for a monopolist is

 

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a.        Downward sloping and always less than price

 

b.       Downward sloping and always equal to price

 

c.        Downward sloping and always greater than price

 

d.       Horizontal, just like for the perfectly competitive firm

 

2.       In the graph, the monopoly is

 

a.        Making economic profits

 

b.       Making either profits or losses.  We cannot tell without more information

 

c.        Breaking even

 

d.       Making accounting profits, but economic losses

 

3.       The marginal revenue curve for a perfectly competitive firm is ____________ while the marginal revenue curve of the monopolist is ____________.

 

a.        Horizontal, downward sloping

 

b.       Horizontal, upward sloping

 

c.        Downward sloping, horizontal

 

d.       Downward sloping, upward sloping

 

4.       A monopoly is socially inefficient because it

 

a.        Makes consumer buy goods they really don’t need

 

b.       Makes profits

 

c.        Makes profits even in the long run

 

d.       Charges a price greater than marginal cost

 

5.       A firm can be the sole supplier of a good and still not be considered a monopoly if

 

a.        The firm is making normal profits

 

b.       The good produced is not important to the economy

 

c.        The firm is not large

 

d.       There are very close substitutes for the good

 

6.       The demand curve faced by the monopolist

 

a.        Has greater price elasticity of demand and close substitutes for the monopoly product are developed

 

b.       Is perfectly inelastic

 

c.        Has smaller price elasticity of demand as close substitutes for the monopoly product are developed

 

d.       Is perfectly elastic

 

7.       In order to price discriminate, a firm must

 

a.        Be sure the price-marginal cost ratio is the same for all its submarkets

 

b.       Have permission from the government

 

c.        Face a downward-sloping demand curve

 

d.       Set price equal to marginal cost

 

8.       As opposed to other types of monopoly, a natural monopoly typically owes its monopoly position to

 

a.        Economies of scale

 

b.       Tariffs

 

c.        Ownership of a resource without close substitutes

 

d.       Patents

 

9.       In a monopoly market structure, the firm (the monopolist)

 

a.        Gouges the consumer

 

b.       Gets unconscionably rich

 

c.        Is the whole industry

 

d.       Sells faulty products

 

10.   In the graph to the right, the profit-maximizing price for a monopoly is

 

a.        P3

 

b.       P4

 

c.        P2

 

d.       P1

 

11.   The fact that a monopolistically competitive firm does not produce the minimum ATC can be viewed as the cost of generating

 

a.        Economies of scale

 

b.       Homogeneous products

 

c.        Product differentiation and variety

 

d.       All of the above

 

12.   A firm that produces an information product will

 

a.        Earn negative or zero economic profits in the long run

 

b.       Earn positive economic profits in the long run

 

c.        Earn zero economic profits in the long run

 

d.       Earn positive or zero economic profits in the long run

 

13.   The downward slop of the demand curve of a monopolistically competitive firm implies that the firm has

 

a.        No monopoly power over price, and therefore advertising will not increase profits

 

b.       Some monopoly power over price, and therefore advertising may increase profits

 

c.        Increasing returns to scale

 

d.       Constant returns to scale

 

14.   The greater the monopolistically competitive firm’s success at product differentiation the lower is (are) the firm’s

 

a.        Price elasticity of demand

 

b.       Opportunities for collusive behavior

 

c.        Options for altering product price

 

d.       None of the above are correct

 

15.   When the qualities of a good are relatively easy to assess in advance of their purchase, the good I known as

 

a.        An information product

 

b.       An experience good

 

c.        A search good

 

d.       An interactive good

 

16.   Which of the following graphs represents the cost curves for an informational product?

 

a.        A

 

b.       B

 

c.        C

 

17.   The monopolistically competitive firm in the diagram is

 

a.        Earning positive economic profits

 

b.       Earning positive accounting profits but negative economic profits

 

c.        Earning negative economic profits

 

d.       Earning economic profits equal to zero

 

18.   In the long run, monopolistically competitive firms,

 

a.        Make zero economic profits

 

b.       Make positive economic profits

 

c.        Can make either positive economic profits or zero economic profits, and always make positive accounting profits

 

d.       Make zero accounting profits

 

19.   In comparing the long-run equilibrium of perfect competition and monopolistic competition, which of the following is true ?

 

a.        Perfect competition: P = MC – minimum of AVC and zero economic profits; Monopolistic competition: P > MC = ATC and positive economic profits

 

b.       Perfect competition: P = MC – minimum of ATC and zero economic profits; Monopolistic competition: P = MC > minimum of ATC and zero economic profits

 

c.        Perfect competition: P = MC – minimum of ATC and zero economic profits; Monopolistic competition: P > MC, P > minimum ATC and zero economic profits

 

d.       Perfect competition: P = MC – minimum of ATC and zero economic profits; Monopolistic competition: P = minimum of ATC > MC and zero economic profits

 

20.   When a firm produces an information product the initial or fixed costs are (low/high). 

 

21.   Consequently the average fixed cost and average total cost (increase/decrease) as the volume of output increases. 

 

22.   Since most of the costs are the initial fixed costs of development, once the product is developed, the (total/average/marginal) cost of producing more units of the product are typically low and (decreasing/increasing/constant). 

 

23.   In this case, then, the low and constant marginal cost is (above/below) the average cost.

 

24.   If the firm set the price, or average revenue, of the product equal to the marginal cost, the firm would have economic (gains/losses) since the marginal cost is (greater than/les than) the average cost.

 

25.   Which of the market structures has unrestricted entry and exit, many sellers of the product and some ability to set the price?

 

a.        Monopolistic competition

 

b.       Oligopoly

 

c.        Monopoly

 

d.       Perfect competition

 

26.   A situation where a consumer’s willingness to use an item depends on how many others use it is

 

a.        A positive-sum game

 

b.       Price leadership

 

c.        A vertical merger

 

d.       A network effect

 

27.   Oligopolies may emerge in an industry because of

 

a.        Barriers to entry

 

b.       Economies of scale

 

c.        Mergers

 

d.       All of the above

 

28.   According to game theory, the strategic interaction between two or more individuals can take the form of

 

a.        A zero-sum game

 

b.       A non-cooperative game

 

c.        A cooperative game

 

d.       All of the above are correct

 

29.   What is a cartel?

 

a.        It is an association of producers in an industry that agree to set common prices to prevent competition

 

b.       It is an association of producers in an industry that agree to set common prices and output quotas to promote competition

 

c.        It is an association of producers in an industry that agree to set common prices to promote competition

 

d.       It is an association of producers in an industry that agree to set common prices and output quotas to prevent competition

 

30.   A game in which the players will not negotiate is a

 

a.        Zero-sum game

 

b.       Cooperative game

 

c.        Non-cooperative game

 

d.       Negative-sum game

 

31.   How can an oligopoly form when there are network effects and market feedback?

 

a.        A few firms may be able to capture most of the growth in demand that is caused by positive market feedback

 

b.       Firms will successfully drive out their competitors when they pick a market leader and match any price changes made by the leader

 

c.        Firms will engage in limit pricing

 

d.       Firms will invest in excess productive capacity to signal other firms that they can outlast their competitors in a price war.

 

32.   Under the Capper-Volstead Act of 1992, U.S. farmers are permitted to form cooperative organizations aimed at influencing aggregate production and market prices of their crops.  Today, many of the nation’s 10,000 potato farmers are aiming to expand the United Potato Growers of America (UPGA), an organization dedicated to restricting potato production, pushing up potato prices, and boosting profits.  The UPGA includes farmers from California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.  Members sign an agreement to restrict their production of potatoes. The UPGA uses satellite photography and global-positioning-system technology to enforce the agreement and fines members who are caught cheating.  Based on the discussion of the factors favoring the organization and enforcement of a cartel, what aspects of US potato farming make the ultimate success of the UPGA’s potato cartel more or less likely?

 

a.        The number of firms makes it ______ likely the UPGA’s cartel will be successful.

 

b.       Being that the product is potatoes makes it ______ likely the UPGA’s cartel will e successful.

 

c.        The fact that potatoes are publically traded in large highly organized markets makes it ______ likely the UPGA’s cartel will be successful.

 

d.       If the demand for potatoes suddenly become more volatile, that would make it ______ likely the UPGA’s cartel will be successful.

 

33.   An industry battle between incompatible product formats can occur if competing firms selling sets of ________________________ products fail to take into account ________________________ effects.

 

34.   Consider the following payoff matrix.  Firm 1 and Firm 2 are seeking to choose between Format A and Format B for their products.  Which of the following statements best describes their profit-maximization?

 

a.        Since there are no network effects, Firm 1 would maximize its profit by producing format B and Firm 2 would maximize its profit by producing format A.

 

b.       Since there are network effects, Firm 1 would maximize its profit by producing format B and Firm 2 would maximize its profit by producing format A.

 

c.        Since there are no network effects, the firms would maximize profits if they both produced format A.

 

d.       Since there are network effects, the firms would maximize profits if they both produced format A.

 

35.   The legal system typically defines monopoly by looking at a firm’s

 

a.        Sales revenues

 

b.       Market share

 

c.        Adjusted taxable income

 

d.       Advertising budget

 

36.   The first legislation enacted to control the creation and growth of monopoly in the U.S. was

 

a.        The Sherman Antitrust Act

 

b.       The Federal Trade Commission Act

 

c.        The Robinson-Patman Act

 

d.       The Clayton Act

 

37.   Which of the following are exempt from antitrust regulation?

 

a.        The communications industry

 

b.       The steel industry

 

c.        The automobile industry

 

d.       Professional baseball

 

38.   The theory that regulators often end up adopting the views of the regulated is known as

 

a.        The capture hypothesis

 

b.       The share-the-gains, share-the-pains hypothesis

 

c.        The deregulation hypothesis

 

d.       None of the above

 

39.   Market solutions to the lemons problem entail

 

a.        Industry standards

 

b.       Product certification

 

c.        Product warranties

 

d.       All of the above

 

40.   Average cost pricing by regulated monopolies

 

a.        Forces the firm to operate at a loss

 

b.       Permits long-run monopoly profits

 

c.        Allows the firm to make a “fair” rate of return

 

d.       None of the above

 

41.   Which of the following is not an issue in enforcing antitrust laws?

 

a.        Marginal cost pricing

 

b.       International competition

 

c.        Defining the relevant market

 

d.       The laws are vague

 

42.   A natural monopoly exists when

 

a.        A firm is able to make long-run profits without inducing entry by other firms

 

b.       There is pure monopoly and the government grants an exclusive license to the firm

 

c.        A firm’s demand curve is downward sloping

 

d.       A firm’s long-run average cost curve is sloping down when it intersects the market demand curve

 

43.   The federal regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over labor markets is

 

a.        The Federal Trade Commission

 

b.       The Occupational Safety and Health Administration

 

c.        The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

 

d.       The Securities and Exchange Commission

 

44.   The primary purpose of economic regulation is

 

a.        To control the price that regulated enterprises are allowed to charge

 

b.       To control the quality of serice provided by a monopolist

 

c.        To force a firm to produce at the point where marginal cost equals marginal revenue

 

d.       To focus on the impact of production on the environment and society, the working conditions under which good and services are produced, and sometimes the physical attributes of goods

 

45.   The table gives some data from the production function of a firm that is a perfect competitor in both the product and labor markets. The wage rate in the industry is $300 and the price of the good produced is $15.  The profit-maximizing quantity of labor to hire is

 

a.        102 workers

 

b.       103 workers

 

c.        104 workers

 

d.       105 workers

 

46.   Which of the following is not a key factor that influences the elasticity of demand for labor?

 

a.        How easy it is to substitute other inputs for labor in the production process

 

b.       The proportion of total costs that is accounted for by labor

 

c.        The availability of labor in the market

 

d.       The price elasticity of demand for the final product

 

e.        The length of time the firm has to adjust to a change in the labor’s price

 

47.   In the short run, labor outsourcing by U.S. firms tends to

 

a.        Increase U.S. wages but reduce U.S. employment

 

b.       Increase both U.S. wages and employment

 

c.        Reduce both U.S. wages and employment

 

d.       Reduce U.S. wages but increase U.S. employment

 

48.   For  affirm facing a perfectly elastic supply of labor, the employment of workers will continue until

 

a.        MRP = wage rate

 

b.       Marginal factor cost = wage rate

 

c.        MPP = MR

 

d.       All of the above

 

49.   The price elasticity of demand for an input

 

a.        Is larger the longer the time period being considered

 

b.       Is lower the larger the proportion of total costs accounted for by that input

 

c.        Is lower as more substitutes for the input are available

 

d.       Is lower the greater the price elasticity of demand for the final product

 

50.   How many workers will this firm employ if the weekly wage is $300?

 

a.        0

 

b.       27

 

c.        28

 

d.       29

 

51.   The net short-run effects of outsourcing on U.S. wages and employment are

 

a.        Always negative

 

b.       Mixed

 

c.        Always positive

 

d.       Limited to blue collar workers

 

52.   If the MRP of labor is less than the age rate, the perfectly competitive firm will

 

a.        Maintain the current level of employment

 

b.       Increase employment

 

c.        Decrease employment

 

d.       Raise the wage rate

 

53.   Other things equal, an increase in the productivity of labor will lead to

 

a.        Fewer workers being hired

 

b.       Lower wages

 

c.        Higher wages

 

d.       No change in the number of workers being hired

 

54.   The monopolist hires fewer workers than the perfect competitor because

 

a.        A product price must rise for the monopolist to sell more

 

b.       The MRP curve for the monopolist is above the MRP curve of the perfect competitor

 

c.        The monopolist produces less than the perfect competitor and needs less labor, other things being equal.

 

d.       None of the above

 

55.   Money payments made by governments to individuals for which no services or goods are concurrently rendered are known as

 

a.        Black market payments

 

b.       Demerit payments

 

c.        Transfer payments

 

d.       Merit payments

 

56.   Subsidizing medical services through Medicare

 

a.        Makes medical services available to a large percentage of the population, who otherwise could not afford them

 

b.       Drives a wedge between the price received by providers and the price perceived by consumers

 

c.        Is s relatively low percentage of U.S. GDP compared to other nations

 

d.       All of the above are true

 

e.        Only A and B are true

 

57.   A cost or benefit of an economic activity that has an impact on an individual’s well-being, even though the individual was not directly involved in the activity, is known as a(n)

 

a.        Public good

 

b.       Externality

 

c.        Free-rider

 

d.       Capital loss

 

58.   Based on the accompanying graph which depicts the market for CAT scans, in the free market, the price of a CAT scan would be __________. In the free market the quantity of CAT scans consumed would be _________.  The government subsidizes the CAT scans and pays hospitals $450.  When the subsidy is paid there will be _________ CAT scans produced.  Consumers are willing to pay _________ out of the pocket expenses for a CAT scan.  The amount of the subsidy is _________.  Subsidizing  CAT scans results in _________ CAT scans being produced.

 

59.   A good that has been deemed socially desirable through the political process is known as

 

a.        A merit good

 

b.       A demerit good

 

c.        A positive externality

 

d.       A free-rider

 

60.   The study of collective decision making, or the process through which voters, politicians and other interested parties influence nonmarket choices is known as

 

a.        A private choice theory

 

b.       Antitrust legislation

 

c.        Public choice theory

 

d.       The exclusion principle

 

61.   Market failure occurs because

 

a.        The market system does not make individuals responsible for the social costs/benefits of their actions

 

b.       The market system forces individuals to consider the social consequences of their actions

 

c.        The market system forces individuals to consider the social and private consequences of their actions

 

d.       The market system does not make individuals responsible for the private costs/benefits of their actions

 

62.   A true public good must be provided by the government.  Which of the following goods is a true public good?

 

a.        Highways where tolls are collected

 

b.       Postal service

 

c.        Tax collection

 

d.       Flood control

 

63.   Other than correcting externalities, other economic functions of government include

 

a.        Deciding which states may or may not impose income taxes, charge fees and enforce contracts

 

b.       Providing a legal system, allocating public goods, promoting competition, and stabilizing the economy

 

c.        Deciding what to produce, how to produce it and for whom to produce for all the sectors of the economy

 

d.       Income redistribution and the regulation and provision of merit and demerit goods

 

64.   Buffalo almost became extinct, but cattle never have been threatened with extinction because

 

a.        Buffalo were wild and cattle were tame

 

b.       Cattle provide economically valuable products and buffalo did not

 

c.        Buffalo are bigger than cattle and thus provide more meat and hide

 

d.       Buffalo were common property and cattle were private property

 

65.   Economically speaking, the optimal quantity of pollution is

 

a.        The output where the marginal benefit from cleaning up pollution equals the marginal cost of cleaning up pollution

 

b.       Zero

 

c.        The output where the total benefit from cleaning up pollution equals the total cost of cleaning up pollution

 

d.       The output where the marginal cost of pollution is positive

 

66.   Which of the following is true ?

 

a.        Private costs are the same thing as external costs

 

b.       Social costs are the same thing as the sum of private and external costs

 

c.        Internal costs are the same thing as social costs

 

d.       All of the above statements are true

 

For questions 67-68, consider the following.  In several African countries where the rhinoceros was once a thriving species, the animal is now nearly extinct.  In most of these nations, rhinoceros horns are used as traditional ingredients in certain medicines.  Rhinoceros farming has been proposed as an alternative to the imposition of stiff penalties on people who are caught engaging in rhinoceros hunting.

 

67.   The imposition of stiff penalties

 

a.        Reduces the supply of rhino horns

 

b.       Increases the price of rhino horns

 

c.        Makes poaching more lucrative

 

d.       All of the above are correct

 

e.        B & C only are correct

 

68.   If rhinoceros farming was legal

 

a.        The market price of rhino horns would fall

 

b.       The incentive to poach would be reduced

 

c.        More rhino horns would be produced

 

d.       All of the above are correct

 

e.        B & C only are correct

 

69.   If the marginal cost of making the air in Los Angeles 10 percent cleaner is $20 million, then the marginal cost of making the air in Los Angeles 20 percent cleaner is

 

a.        Between $20 and $40 million

 

b.       Uncertain.  We need more information

 

c.        $40 million

 

d.   &nbsp

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