POST PHL203 Unit 4 Midterm Latest 2019 March

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PHL203 Ethics

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Unit 4 Midterm

1. Retributivism justifies punishment on the basis of desert. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach?


Retributive theory of justice focuses on punishment to only those who ‘deserve’ it

It only punishes individuals for the crimes they have committed

 It insists on the need of proportionality of the punishment to the desert.


Retributive form of justice is not concerned with the consequences of the acts but only with the desert which has occurred.

The requirement of desert required to punish individuals for the crimes they have committed has in itself some difficulties.

retributive theory is with dealing with amoral crimes.

2. One of the problems with a strict rules approach is that they do not tell us what to do in some situations.



Answers: True

3. According to the author there is no place for religion in moral thinking.



Answers: False

4. An example of a moral proposition is

A. “I feel sick.”

B. “You should not treat people badly.”

C. “Nothing can be both A and not A.”

D. “Her hair is brown.”

Answers: “You should not treat people badly.”

5. A moral system needs to deal consistently with

A. all human beings exclusively.

B. particular human beings exclusively.

C. the universal and the particular together.

D. none of the above.

Answers: the universal and the particular together.

6. The great exponent of economic and social determinism was

A. Adam Smith.

B. Karl Marx.

C. John Hospers.

D. William James.

Answers: Karl Marx.

7. Confucian Harmony and Aristotelian Balance are comparable concepts.



Answers: False

8. “An eye for an eye” fits with a(n) theory of punishment.

A. utilitarian

B. conservative

C. retributivist

D. distributivist

Answers: retributivist

9.Utilitarianism is an egoistic theory.



Answers: False

10. Which of the following are Confucian Cardinal Relationships?

A. ruler and subject

B. father and son

C. elder brother and younger brother

D. all of the above

Answers: all of the above

11. Why, according to the author of the textbook, should humans be moral?

A. self-interest

B. law

C. tradition

D. common human needs

Answers: common human needs

12. Because a view in one culture is different from another does not mean that either view is right or wrong.



Answers: True

13. Philosophers demand in general that beliefs, propositions, and ideas be examined

A. according to tradition.

B. without evaluation.

C. with the Bible in hand.

D. critically.

Answers: critically.

14. Similar moral principles exist in all societies is a view supported by

A. relativists.

B. absolutists.

C. colonialists.

D. deconstructionists.

Answer; absolutists.

15.The problem of “getting an ought from an is” means

A. what you should do is determined by how you feel.

B. what you ought to do is often very difficult.

C. what people should do has no necessary connection to what they actually do.

D. what people like to do is actually what they in fact do.

16. Who is the Confucian disciple who viewed human beings as innately good?

A. Xunzi

B. Aristotle

C. Mencius

D. Master Xun


17. The Golden Mean (or the Aristotelian Mean) is the locus of virtue.



Answers: True

18. Relativists hold that morals are relative to

A. culture.

B. individuals.

C. situations.

D. all of the above.

Answers: culture.

19. A weakness of non consequentialists is that they try to avoid

A. the consequences of their rules or acts.

B. the duties that all human beings have.

C. the virtues in leading the good life.

D. paying taxes like the rest of us.

Answer; the consequences of their rules or acts.

20.Which of the following is a strength of non consequentialist approaches?

A. Rules are grounded in something other than consequences and/or cost-benefit analysis.

B. Ignores consequences.

C. There is division over which rules have precedence over others.

D. Apparently shuts down moral discussion.

Answers: Rules are grounded in something other than consequences and/or cost-benefit analysis.

21. What is “care ethics”? Can justice and care be integrated?

Answer; Care Ethics is a study of values and code and conducts followed in a society which involves perceptives like morality ..

22. “Human beings should always act in the interests of others.” Is this

A. descriptive?

B. prescriptive?

C. analytic?

D. metaethical?

Answer; B. prescriptive?

23. Who is the most significant modern proponent of virtue ethics?

A. Kant

B. Sosa

C. Macintyre

D. Nozick

Answers: Macintyre

24. There are two major approaches to the study of morality.



Answers: True

25. The categorical imperative for Kant demands that you must follow absolute rules.



Answer; True

26. Lawrence Kohlberg believed that women and men were equal in moral reasoning.



Answers: False

27. John Rawls believes that human rights are natural rights.



Answer; True

28. Compare virtue ethics to both consequentialist and nonconsequentialist approaches. Of the three, which is the best and why?


Virtue ethics doesn’t pass judgment on an individual as great or dependent on the single activity in their lives. It requires some investment to pass judgment on one’s character. Also, it takes at past slip-ups that are not regularly in an individual’s authentic nature. Deontology decides the profound quality of activity-dependent on rules, for example, moral naturalism, strict law, or dependent on a lot of individual or social qualities. It is something contrary to utilitarianism with regards to the clarifications of its ideas. 

Consequentialism is an ethical hypothesis that expresses the consequences of one’s activities are the reason for any mortality or judgment towards that activity. These two sorts of consequentialism center around the result of the direct as the essential inspiration of that activity. The previous spotlights on the possibility of everyone’s benefit which implies, utilitarianism puts more accentuation on the consequences and choices that ought to be made dependent on satisfaction for the best number of individuals through the last holds the ethical direct should be decided through personal responsibility. 

In my view, consequentialism is non-prescriptive, which means the ethical worth of activity is dictated by its potential consequences, not by whether it adheres to a lot of rules or composed laws while non-consequentialist have a few guidelines and good obligation as a focal center which assists with deciding the rightness or unsoundness of one’s lead from the character as opposed to the results of the direct.

29. To be applicable morals should be capable of being

A. agreed upon by everyone.

B. agreed upon by a select few.

C. agreed upon by no one.

D. agreed upon by some and taught to others.

Answers: agreed upon by some and taught to others.

30. All anthropologists are cultural absolutists.



Answer; False

31. Rule utilitarians think that

A. everyone should act only on universal exceptionless rules.

B. everyone should act only according to the rule “the end does not justify the means.”

C. everyone should act according to the rule that brings about the most good for all.

D. everyone should act according to the rule that is in their self-interest.

Answers: everyone should act according to the rule that brings about the most good for all.

32. So called “feminist ethics” involves the belief that

A. men are more mature morally.

B. women are more mature morally.

C. women think about ethics differently than men.

D. men are from Mars, women are from Venus.

Answers: women think about ethics differently than men.

33. Non consequentialist theories of morality are based on a range of factors including the ends of our actions.



Answers: False

34. The excess and deficiency relative to the virtue courage are

A. rashness and cowardice.

B. bashfulness and shamelessness.

C. boastfulness and self-depreciation.

D. buffoonery and boorishness.

Answers: rashness and cowardice.

35. The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism is that one is true and the other is false.



Answers: False

36. Morality is the same as law and custom.



Answers: False

37. Who believes that reasoning in moral matters is usually used to confirm our more direct sense of right and wrong?

A. Deontologists

B. Care theorists

C. Intuitionists

D. Psychologists

Answer; Intuitionists

38. Hard determinism maintains that if all events are caused there is no freedom.



Answers: True

39. Fatalism is the view that although things are fixed and predetermined your behavior still makes a difference.



Answers: False

40. What kind of case presents difficulties for all the theories of punishment?

A. Where harm occurs but the people causing it are clearly irresponsible.

B.Where harm occurs but the people causing it are really without fault.

C. Where harm does not occur but could if people were slightly more unlucky.

D. Where harm does occur but the people causing it cannot be caught.

Answers: Where harm occurs but the people causing it are really without fault

41. Li is a matter of “ritual propriety.”



Answers: True

42. The most basic logical principle of the moral system developed here is the

A. Principle of Self-interest.

B. Principle of Goodness.

C. Principle of the Golden Rule.

D. Principle of Free Love.

Answers: Principle of Goodness.

43. Consequentialists believe that the central part of moral action is

A. the self.

B. the virtues.

C. the other

D. the consequences.

Answers: the consequences.

44. Restitution theories believe that when a crime is committed a victim should

A. seek compensation.

B. seek revenge.

C. seek help.

D. seek punishment.

Answers: seek compensation.

45. Describe the differences between act and rule nonconsequentialism.

Answer; Rule nonconsequentialist believes that the rules help in governing the society and aims at the
goodness of the society. For example, Divine Command Theory, according to which the source
of moral authority is single and that is God, the spiritual deity. Another example is virtue ethics
theory, which focuses on the development of the good character traits. But this theory lacks
rational foundation and justifying the rules in the satisfactorily manner is not possible. On the
other hand, Act nonconsequentialist believes that the there is no eternal rule which can govern the society rather the act varies from situation to situation and case to case. So generalization of rule is not possible. For example, naturalists who focus on intuitions and common sense and thereby promote the feeling of Reflective equilibrium. But the theory was criticized because the intuition varies from individual to individual and is not backed by any sort of justification. Both of the above theories helps in laying down the foundation of ethics, according to which the society takes decision and moves. Thus, consequentialist determine the act on the basis of consequences which may be good or bad, while nonconsequentialist is generally normative theory which determine the act on the basis of intrinsic values and does not have to do anything about the consequences. The acceptance of these theories varies from societies to societies on the to societies on the basis of belief and laid down principles.

46. Are you a relativist? Explain why or why not, making sure that you look at arguments for and against.

Answer; Yes I am Relativist.

Step by step Explanation

Yes, I am Relativist, Because I believe what is right or wrong (Morality) varies from individual to individual. 

Arguments for – Relativism allows for a wide variety of cultures and practices. Therefore it promotes peace and harmony among diversity

– It also allows individuals to adapt ethically as the knowledge, culture, and technology change in society.

Arguments against -Just because people think that something is right does not make it so. For example, Slavery which is immoral 300 years ago it was normal in the United States.

   -Moral relativism leads to indifference and conflicts due to different opinions where people do not agree.

47. Who, according to the author of the text, is the most prominent exponent of indeterminism?

A. William James

B. Henry Ford

C. Sigmund Freud

D. Karl Marx

Answers: Karl Marx

48. If you are a psychological egoist you believe

A. that people should help others.

B. that people ought to help animals.

C. that people always or often do help themselves.

D. that people should or ought to help themselves.

Answers: that people always or often do help themselves

49. Soft determinism is the view that all events are caused but there is human freedom.



Answers: True

50. If there are external causes for everything you do you are a

A. hard determinist.

B. soft determinist.

C. indeterminist.

D. fatalist.

Answers: hard determinist.

51. Indeterminism is the belief that

A. some things are caused.

B. all things are caused.

C. nothing is caused.

D. nothing is caused except human actions.

Answers: nothing is caused except human actions.

52. One of the weaknesses of deterrence theories is that if they work they work just as well on the innocent as well as the guilty.



Answers: False

53. How we dispense good or bad, reward and punishment, is called distributive justice.



Answers: True

54. Because everyone is different people must have some leeway to deal with these differences in a way that best suits them. This is the Principle of

A. Goodness.

B. Individual Freedom.

C. Self-Interest.

D. Justice.

Answers; Individual Freedom.

55. Who said that if you can’t universalize your action then it is not moral?

A. Socrates

B. Jesus

C. Joseph Fletcher

D. Kant

Answers: Kant

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