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PHL203 Ethics

Unit 4 Midterm

Question 1Retributivism justifies punishment on the basis of desert. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach?

Question 2One of the problems with a strict rules approach is that they do not tell us what to do in some situations.

Answers:

True

False

Question 3According to the author there is no place for religion in moral thinking.

Answers:

True

False

Question 4An example of a moral proposition is

Answers:

“I feel sick.”

“You should not treat people badly.”

“Nothing can be both A and not A.”

“Her hair is brown.”

Question 5A moral system needs to deal consistently with

Answers:

all human beings exclusively.

particular human beings exclusively.

the universal and the particular together.

none of the above.

Question 6The great exponent of economic and social determinism was

Answers:

Adam Smith.

Karl Marx.

John Hospers.

William James.

Question 7Confucian Harmony and Aristotelian Balance are comparable concepts.

Answers:

True

False

Question 8“An eye for an eye” fits with a(n) theory of punishment.

Answers:

utilitarian

conservative

retributivist

distributivist

Question 9 Utilitarianism is an egoistic theory.

Answers:

True

False

Question 10 Which of the following are Confucian Cardinal Relationships?

Answers:

ruler and subject

father and son

elder brother and younger brother

all of the above

Question 11Why, according to the author of the textbook, should humans be moral?

Answers:

self-interest

law

tradition

common human needs

Question 12Because a view in one culture is different from another does not mean that either view is right or wrong.

Answers:

True

False

Question 13Philosophers demand in general that beliefs, propositions, and ideas be examined

Answers:

according to tradition.

without evaluation.

with the Bible in hand.

critically.

Question 14Similar moral principles exist in all societies is a view supported by

Answers:

relativists.

absolutists.

colonialists.

deconstructionists.

Question 15The problem of “getting an ought from an is” means

Answers:

what you should do is determined by how you feel.

what you ought to do is often very difficult.

what people should do has no necessary connection to what they actually do.

what people like to do is actually what they in fact do.

Question 16Who is the Confucian disciple who viewed human beings as innately good?

Answers:

Xunzi

Aristotle

Mencius

Master Xun

Question 17The Golden Mean (or the Aristotelian Mean) is the locus of virtue.

Answers:

True

False

Question 18Relativists hold that morals are relative to

Answers:

culture.

individuals.

situations.

all of the above.

Question 19A weakness of nonconsequentialists is that they try to avoid

Answers:

the consequences of their rules or acts.

the duties that all human beings have.

the virtues in leading the good life.

paying taxes like the rest of us.

Question 20Which of the following is a strength of nonconsequentialist approaches?

Answers:

Rules are grounded in something other than consequences and/or cost-benefit analysis.

Ignores consequences.

There is division over which rules have precedence over others.

Apparently shuts down moral discussion.

Question 21What is “care ethics”? Can justice and care be integrated?

Question 22 “Human beings should always act in the interests of others.” Is this

Answers:

descriptive?

prescriptive?

analytic?

metaethical?

Question 23Who is the most significant modern proponent of virtue ethics?

Answers:

Kant

Sosa

Macintyre

Nozick

Question 24 There are two major approaches to the study of morality.

Answers:

True

False

Question 25

The categorical imperative for Kant demands that you must follow absolute rules.

Answers:

True

False

Question 26Lawrence Kohlberg believed that women and men were equal in moral reasoning.

Answers:

True

False

Question 27 John Rawls believes that human rights are natural rights.

Answers:

True

False

Question 28 Compare virtue ethics to both consequentialist and nonconsequentialist approaches. Of the three, which is the best and why?

Question 29 To be applicable morals should be capable of being

Answers:

agreed upon by everyone.

agreed upon by a select few.

agreed upon by no one.

agreed upon by some and taught to others.

Question 30 All anthropologists are cultural absolutists.

Answers:

True

False

Question 31Rule utilitarians think that

Answers:

everyone should act only on universal exceptionless rules.

everyone should act only according to the rule “the end does not justify the means.”

everyone should act according to the rule that brings about the most good for all.

everyone should act according to the rule that is in their self-interest.

Question 32 So called “feminist ethics” involves the belief that

Answers:

men are more mature morally.

women are more mature morally.

women think about ethics differently than men.

men are from Mars, women are from Venus.

Question 33Nonconsequentialist theories of morality are based on a range of factors including the ends of our actions.

Selected Answer:

False

Answers:

True

False

Question 34The excess and deficiency relative to the virtue courage are

Answers:

rashness and cowardice.

bashfulness and shamelessness.

boastfulness and self-depreciation.

buffoonery and boorishness.

Question 35The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism is that one is true and the other is false.

Answers:

True

False

Question 36Morality is the same as law and custom.

Answers:

True

False

Question 37Who believes that reasoning in moral matters is usually used to confirm our more direct sense of right and wrong?

Answers:

Deontologists

Care theorists

Intuitionists

Psychologists

Question 38Hard determinism maintains that if all events are caused there is no freedom.

Answers:

True

False

Question 39Fatalism is the view that although things are fixed and predetermined your behavior still makes a difference.

Answers:

True

False

Question 40What kind of case presents difficulties for all the theories of punishment?

Answers:

Where harm occurs but the people causing it are clearly irresponsible.

Where harm occurs but the people causing it are really without fault.

Where harm does not occur but could if people were slightly more unlucky.

Where harm does occur but the people causing it cannot be caught.

Question 41Li is a matter of “ritual propriety.”

Answers:

True

False

Question 42The most basic logical principle of the moral system developed here is the

Answers:

Principle of Self-interest.

Principle of Goodness.

Principle of the Golden Rule.

Principle of Free Love.

Question 43 Consequentialists believe that the central part of moral action is

Answers:

the self.

the virtues.

the other

the consequences.

Question 44 Restitution theories believe that when a crime is committed a victim should

Answers:

seek compensation.

seek revenge.

seek help.

seek punishment.

Question 45Describe the differences between act and rule nonconsequentialism.

Question 46Are you a relativist? Explain why or why not, making sure that you look at arguments for and against.

Question 47 Who, according to the author of the text, is the most prominent exponent of indeterminism?

Answers:

William James

Henry Ford

Sigmund Freud

Karl Marx

Question 48 If you are a psychological egoist you believe

Answers:

that people should help others.

that people ought to help animals.

that people always or often do help themselves.

that people should or ought to help themselves.

Question 49 Soft determinism is the view that all events are caused but there is human freedom.

Answers:

True

False

Question 50 If there are external causes for everything you do you are a

Selected Answer:

hard determinist.

Answers:

hard determinist.

soft determinist.

indeterminist.

fatalist.

Question 51 Indeterminism is the belief that

Answers:

some things are caused.

all things are caused.

nothing is caused.

nothing is caused except human actions.

Question 52 One of the weaknesses of deterrence theories is that if they work they work just as well on the innocent as well as the guilty.

Answers:

True

False

Question 53 How we dispense good or bad, reward and punishment, is called distributive justice.

Answers:

True

False

Question 54 Because everyone is different people must have some leeway to deal with these differences in a way that best suits them. This is the Principle of

Answers:

Goodness.

Individual Freedom.

Self-Interest.

Justice.

Question 55 Who said that if you can’t universalize your action then it is not moral?

Answers:

Socrates

Jesus

Joseph Fletcher

Kant

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