PSY2012 MIDTERM EXAM latest 2018 September

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MIDTERM EXAM

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Question 1

According to APA Center for Workforce Studies (2015) and U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014), which proportion BEST approximates the percentage of psychologists who provide therapy.

one-quarter

one-third

one-half

three-quarters

Question 2

Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying:

only mental processes.

only behavior.

mental disorders and their treatment.

behavior and mental processes.

Question 3

MD is to PhD as ___________is to __________.

psychiatrist;clinical psychologist

clinical psychologist;psychiatrist

clinical psychologist;counseling psychologist

counseling psychologist;clinical psychologist

Question 4

The goals of psychology do NOT include:

explain

experiment

predict

control

Question 5

The formal beginning of psychology is associated with:

James

Titchener

Descartes

Wundt

Question 6

At the heart of the humanistic perspective is the concept of:

free will

environmental determinism

natural selection

unconscious conflict

Question 7

An approach that attempts to explain behavior but is without empirical support is labeled a:

parapsychology

pop psychology

psuedopsychology

critical psychology

Question 8

What is the relationship among psychology, pseudopsychology , and critical thinking?

Critical thinking is important in pseudopsychology but absent from psychology.

Critical thinking is important in psychology but absent from psuedopsychology.

Critical thinking is important in both psychology and pseudopsychology.

Psychology, pseudopsychology, and critical thinking are three different ways of understanding behavior.

Question 9

The process psychologists use to conduct research is called:

critical thinking.

informed speculation.

the scientific method.

educated guessing.

Question 10

Dr. O’Connor is telling his participants before he begins the experiment that their participation is completely voluntary and that they can stop taking part at any time. Dr. O’Connor is:

debriefing his participants.

providing peer review.

performing random assignment.

obtaining informed consent.

Question 11

Which descriptive research technique is CORRECTLY matched with a key advantage?

survey-allows data to be collected rapidly

case study-permits examination of relationships among variables

naturalistic observation

correlational method-examines behavior in its natural environment

Question 12

Natualistic observation entails:

the systematic, detailed study of a single individual

asking a sample of individuals a set of questions

the manipulation of an independent variable

examining behavior in the setting in which it typically occurs.

Question 13

Sigmund Freud based much of his theory on intensive analyses of individual patients. The psychoanalytic perspective, therefore, is built on a foundation of:

surveys

observational work

case studies

experiments

Question 14

Irving has noticed a pattern: The more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method would be aimed at verifying the relationship between these two variables?

naturalistic observation

case study

correlational research

experimental method

Question 15

Of all the research designs, only ____________can tell us about cause and effect.

naturalistic observation

surveys

experimental method

correlational method

Question 16

In an experiment, the process of random_________ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being in either the control group or the experimental group.

assignment

selection

sampling

placement

Question 17

A pharmaceutical company wishes to test the efficacy of a new antidepressant using a double-blind study. Which alternative CORRECTLY describes the procedure the company would use?

The research assistants would know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient wuld also know which typeof pill he or she was taking.

The research assistants would know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient, thought, would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.

The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient, though, would know which type of pill he or she was taking.

The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.

Question 18

The texbook states that “our knowlege of sexual behavior is often limited to self-reporting.” Self-report techniques are most commonly associated with _______________ research.

case study

survey

experimental

naturalistic observation

Question 19

Brooke is a girl. Her genetic sex is:

X.

Y.

XY.

XX.

Question 20

Which statement is MOST accurate with respect to potential differences in verbal ability between boys and girls in their childhood?

There is a small difference favoring girls.

There is a large difference favoring boys.

There is a large difference favoring girls

There is a small difference favoring boys.

Question 21

The term gender____________refers to the feeling or sense of being either male or female.

role

identity

schema

type

Question 22

A(n) individual has ambiguous or inconsistent indicators of male or female in the sexual structure of organs.

homosexual

intersexual

transsexual

transgender

Question 23

According to the American Psychological Association, people whose gender expression and identity do not typically match their natal gender are called:

transgender

transsexual

homosexual

intersex

Question 24

Which choice BEST describes the method used in Masters and Johnson’s pioneering sexual response cycle research?

case study

survey research

naturalistic observation

laboratory research

Question 25

Which sequence CORRECTLY orders the phases of the human sexual response cycle from first to last?

excitement>plateau>resolution >orgasm

excitement>plateau>orgasm>resolution

plateau>excitement>orgasm>resolution

plateau>resolution>excitement>orgasm

Question 26

Gender-role stereotypes begin to take hold around age of ______years.

6

5

3

1

Question 27

Which phase of the sexual response cycle is CORRECTLY described?

plateau-a gratifying series of rapid muscular contractions

orgasm-the body returns to a relaxed state.

resolution – a short phase in which muscles contnue to tense, breathing and heart rate increase, and blood fills the genitals.

excitement – physical changes start becoming evident.

Question 28

An individual who does not feel sexually attracted to other people is:

asexual

transsexual

androgynous

bisexual

Question 29

Research suggests that the likelihood that a boy will become a gay man is_______________________associated with the number of older brothers he has.

negatively

not

positively

weakly

Question 30

Jennifer rarely, if ever, initiates sexual activity. She finds little pleasure or excitement in sexual activity. Jennifer suffers from _________disorder.

hypoactive sexual desire

female orgasmic

female sexual interest/arousal

genito-pelvic pain/penetration

Question 31

Which statement is true of genital herpes?

It can only be treated to reduce symptoms.

It is a bacterial disease.

It is more common than genital warts.

It can be cured with antibiotics.

Question 32

To investigate human sexuality in general, Kinsey and his colleagues studied just over 10,000 Americans. These people constituted Kinsey’s:

control group

experimental group

population

sample

Question 33

Psychologists use the term________to refer to the patterns of physical, cognitive, and socioemotional change occurring throughout life.

development

learning

maturation

cognition

Question 34

Heredity versus environment is another way of referring to the ______________theme of debate on developmental psychology.

stages versus continuity

free will versus determinism

nature versus nurture

stability versus change

Question 35

Dr. Irwin is testing the same individuals repeatedly over time as a part of a research study, while Dr. Jenner is comparing the performance of different people of various ages at the same time. Dr. Irwin is using a ______________research design; Dr. Jenner is using a ______________design.

cross-sectional;longitudinal

longitudinal;cross-sectional

sequential; simultaneous

sequential;cross-sectional

Question 36

The nucleus of a human cell contains ____________chromosomes.

23 pairs of

23

2 pairs of

2

Question 37

An individual’s complete collection of genes is called his or her:

DNA

phenotype

chromosome

genotype

Question 38

When Tara states that she is fascinated by the way the environment affects the expression of genetic characteristics, Devin suggests she explore the field of :

philosophy

epigenetics

anthropology

sociology

Question 39

Dizygotic twins share _____________% of their genetic material.

100

75

50

25

Question 40

A teratogen is:

an environmental agent that can produce a birth defect.

a genetic or chromosomal abnormality that may produce a developmental disorder.

any physical defect in an unborn child.

a fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division

Question 41

Baby Hannah automatically turns her head in the direction of a touch on her cheek. This is the _______ reflex; it helps an infant to __________.

rooting;notice danger

sucking;notice danger

sucking;obtain food

rooting;obtain food

Question 42

The field of cognitive development is greatly indebted to the seminal work of the Swiss scholar:

Freud

Vygotsky

Pavlov

Piaget

Question 43

When an infant recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer in sight, the infant has attained what Piaget termed:

conservation

observation permanence

formal operations

reversibility

Question 44

Which sequence CORRECTLY reflects the order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, from birth through adolescence?

sensorimotor>concrete operational>preoperational>formal operational

preoperational>concrete operational>preoperational>formal operational

sensorimotor>preoperational>concrete operational>formal operational

nonoperational>preoperational>operational>postoperational

Question 45

A 4-year old looks at a picture of a dragon while on the telephone with her grandfather. If Piaget’s claims of egocentrism are correct, the child is likely to

tell her grandfather to look at the dragon.

describe the dragon picture to her grandfather.

ignore her grandfather when he asks her about her day.

ask her grandfathre if he would like to see the picture the next time they are together.

Question 46

Characteristic differences in behavioral patterns and emotional reactions make up a person’s:

conscience

morale

attachment style

temperament

Question 47

Harry Harlow and his colleagues completed a number of studies in which baby macaque monkeys were raised with two artificial surrogate mothers. One of the mothers was made of wire, and the other was made of soft cloth. Either monkey could provide food. Harrow was interested in which of the mothers the infant monkeys would seek out when they were startled or frightened. In these studies, the dependent variable was the:

surrogate that the infant monkeys preferred when they were startled.

intensity of the stimulus used to frighten the monkey.

age of the infant monkeys at the time of the test.

length of time the infant monkeys spent exploring the cage.

Question 48

Mary Ainsworth devised the Strange Situation to assess infants’:

temperaments.

attachment styles.

sensoridevelopment.

egocentrism

Question 49

In Erikson’s view, adolescent development is largely defined by the search for:

integrity

identity

intimacy

autonomy

Question 50

On Monday, Jacques announces to his parents that he wants to be called “Jack.” On Wednesday, he says he wants to drop out of school. On Friday, he says he wants to get a tatoo and become an architect. In Erikson’s terms, Jacques seems to be in the _______________________stage.

trust versus mistrust

competence versus inferiority

generativity versus stagnation

identify versus role confusion

Question 51

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development MOST closely reflects:

Ainsworth attachment styles theory.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

Erikson’s stage theory of psychosocial development.

Baumrind’s parenting styles classification.

Question 52

When a woman stops ovulating and becomes incapable of reproduction, she experiences:

menopause

andropause

amenorrhea

menarche

Question 53

Identify a TRUE statement about crystallized intelligence.

It is the ability to create associations among concepts.

It declines with age.

It is the knowledge one gains through learning and experience.

It remains stable until age 50.

Question 54

Ideally most adults feel that their activities contribute positively to society. That is, they experience a sense of:

industry.

generativity.

integrity.

identity.

Question 55

Which of Baumrind’s parenting styles tend to produce the most independent, competent and socially responsible children? Why?

The authoritative parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and socially responsible children. In this style, the child’s point of view is taken into account.

The permissive parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and socially responsible children. In this style, few demands are placed ont he child, allowing her to become more independent.

The authoritarian parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and sociall responsible children. In this style, the child’s behavior is strictly controlled, leading her to become more responsible.

The uninvolved parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and socially responsible children. In this style, few demands are placed on the child, allowing her to become more independent.

Question 56

___________is the first of Kubler-Ross’ stages.

Depression

Denial

Anger

Bargaining

Question 57

Denise is in her mid-40s; she has never married and is childless. Her job is routine and she feels as if she hasn’t really done much to contribute to society’s future. In Erikson’s terms, Denise is experiencing:

despair.

isolation.

role confusion.

stagnation.

Question 58

Grace is a 19-year-old sophomore. She is living away from home for the first time and is trying to decide on a major. Grace is in a phase of life many developmental psychologists call ______________adulthood.

emerging

beginning

evolving

launching

Question 59

According to Kohlberg, decisions at the postconventional level of moral reasoning are based on:

moral expectations of society.

personal gain.

individual beliefs about morality.

external consequences.

Question 60

Chemically, medicines such as morphine and codeine are related to:

cocaine

amphetamine

caffiene

opium

Question 61

The term “consciousness” refers to:

the state of being awake.

higher-level reasoning and problem solving.

one’s objective assessment of the world.

one’s awareness of oneself and the environment.

Question 62

Which early psychologist believed that psychology should restrict itself to the study of observable behaviors?

Freud

Wundt

Watson

Titchner

Question 63

One’s ability to read, understand, and —–ideally—remember a textbook paragraph is related to the area of ______________psychology.

developmental

cognitive

social

clinical

Question 64

Automatic processing is defined as:

the tendency to beocme less aware over time of unchanging stimuli.

the ability to focus attention on a small segment of information.

taking in the information with little or no conscious effort.

the failure to process objects one can clearly sense.

Question 65

The cocktail-party effect is a phenomenon of:

memory

attention

sensation

automation

Question 66

Biological processes occurring on a cycle of approximately 24 hours are called____________.

circadian

tidal

diurnal

infradian

Question 67

Difficulty falling or staying asleep is referred to as:

cataplexy

narcolepsy

insomnia

sleep apnea

Question 68

Brody is just drifting off to sleep. An EEG would reveal an increase in ____________waves and a decrease in beta waves.

alpha

delta

sigma

theta

Question 69

Which stage of consciousness is CORRECTLY paired with its corresponding brain wave?

waking consciousness-theta waves

Stage N1sleep-alpha waves

Stage N3sleep-delta waves

Stage Rsleep-beta waves

Question 70

Dreams are MOST often reported when sleepers wake from ___________sleep.

Stage N1

REM

slow-wave

non-REM

Question 71

Sudden “sleep attacks” are characteristic of a sleep disorder called:

narcolepsy

insomnia

sleep terrors

sleep apnea

Question 72

A disturbance of non-REM sleep characterized by complex motor behavior during sleep is known as:

obstructive sleep apnea

narcolepsy

insomnia

sleep walking

Question 73

According to the text, which sleep disorder primarily affects older men?

narcolepsy

REM sleep behavior disorder

insomnia

sleepwalking

Question 74

A sleeper’s first dream usually begins:

about 90 minutes after falling asleep.

a few minutes after falling asleep.

about halfway through the night’s sleep.

about 90 minutes before waking up.

Question 75

Ariel is drinking a can of beer. Barry is smoking a cigarette. Cord is smoking a marijuana cigarette. Who is using a psychoactive drug?

Only Cord is using a psychoactive drug.

Only Ariel and Cord are using a psychoactive drug.

Only Barry and Cord are using psychoactive drugs.

All these people are using psychoactive drugs.

Question 76

Benzodiazepines and barbiturates are types of:

opiods.

stimulants.

depressants.

hallucinogens.

Question 77

___________________is the most widely used depressant in the United States.

Xanax

Alcohol

Valium

Marijuana

Question 78

More emergency room visits stem from ___________than from any other illegal drug.

heroin

cocaine

marijuana

methamphetamine

Question 79

Fallon, a 28-year-old woman, is a drug addict. Nonprescription use of the drug she uses is illegal; hence she does not buy it from a pharmacy. Instead, she brews it in the laboratory in her house using battery acid, drain cleaner, and over-the counter cough medicines. Given this information, identify the drug that Fallon MOST likely uses:

heroin

Xanax

Rohypnol

methamphetamine

Question 80

Which idea concerning hypnosis is FALSE?

Hypnotized people cannot exhibit superhuman strenth.

Hypnosis can promote the formation of false memories.

Hypnotized people can be made to act against their will.

Hypnosis can be used to treat chronic pain.

Question 81

Tolerance is indicative of ______________dependence. Withdrawal indicates ____________dependence.

physiological;physiological

physiological;psychological

psychological;physiological

psychological;psychological

Question 82

Psychologists define ___________as a relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking resulting from experience.

adaptation

habituation

cognition

learning

Question 83

In the context of learning, operant conditioning is directly associated with:

the biology of an organism.

behavior imitation.

the relation between unconditioned stimuli and neutral stimuli.

rewards and punishments.

Question 84

Ivan Pavlov is associated with the study of classical conditioning. This means that he studied how:

people learn by imitating others.

organisms associate two different stimuli.

people associate their behaviors with their consequences.

organisms respond to reinforcement.

Question 85

A research assistant in a lab conditions dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell. During conditioning, the assistant rings a bell and then presents the animal with food. After conditioning the dog to salivate to the bell, the bell is the ________stimulus and the food is the _____________ stimulus.

unconditioned;neutral

neutral;conditioned

unconditioned;conditioned

conditioned;unconditioned

Question 86

Tim loves dill pickles. The sight of a jar on the supermarket shelf makes his mouth water. In the terminology of classical conditioning, the sight of the jar is a(n):

CS.

US.

NS.

CR.

Question 87

June’s cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can openr but not when a blender is used. June’s cat is demonstrating stimulus:

shaping

generalization

discrimination

recovery

Question 88

Which scenario describes extinction?

Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she sees a friend with whom she used to use.

Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush she did when she first started using the drug.

Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she sees a friend with whom she used to use.

Alexix uses cocaine. When she uses cocaine, her hands shake and her heart pounds.

Question 89

Adam was stung by a bee. Now he is frightened not only of bees, but of all flying insects. This examples illustrates:

stimulus generalization.

adaptation

shaping

spontaneous recovery

Question 90

The mere sight of a needle is enough to make Aimee wince, as if in pain. Even being in a hospital or clinic is enough to make her squirm, probably because these settings are associated with needles. This example BEST illustrates:

stimulus generalization.

higher order conditioning.

stimulus discrimination.

negative reinforcement.

Question 91

The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that the preceding behavior will be repeated is called:

shaping.

punishment.

association.

reinforcement.

Question 92

Perhaps the MOST influential early research on operant conditioning was conducted by:

Pavlov

Skinner

Watson

Bandura

Question 93

Using reinforcers to condition a series of small steps that get progressively closer to a target behavior is called:

higher order conditioning

partial reinforcement

successive approximations

shaping

Question 94

In __________________reinforcement, every instance of a behavior is reinforced.

primary

intermittent

continuous

constant

Question 95

Vending machine is to _______reinforcement as slot machine is to ___________reinforcement.

continuous;partial

partial;continuous

partial;intermittent

intermittent;partial

Question 96

In variable-ratio reinforcement, reinforcers:

change from trial to trial.

are delivered after pre-established time periods.

are delivered after a changing number of responses.

are delivered after a fluctuating period of time.

Question 97

Paychecks and course grades are delivered on a _____________schedule of reinforcement.

fixed-ratio

variable-ratio

variable-interval

fixed-interval

Question 98

Bandura’s “Bobo doll” experiments were intended to demonstrate:

latent learning.

observational learning.

shaping.

insight.

Question 99

The classic “Bobo doll” experiment by American psychologist Albert Bandura and his colleagues reveals that:

children are reluctant to adopt aggressive ways they see modeled by adults.

boys are more likely than are girls to mimic physical aggression, especially if they have observed it modeled by men.

girls are less likely than are boys to imitate verbal aggression.

girls are more likely than boys to mimic verbal aggression, especially if they have observed it modeled by men.

Question 100

Voluntary behavior is to involuntary behavior as __________conditioning is to ____________conditioning.

operant; classical

classical; Pavlovian

classical; operant

Pavlovian; operant

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