PSY2012 MIDTERM EXAM latest 2018 September
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According to APA Center for Workforce Studies (2015) and U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014), which proportion BEST approximates the percentage of psychologists who provide therapy.
Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying:
only mental processes.
mental disorders and their treatment.
behavior and mental processes.
MD is to PhD as ___________is to __________.
clinical psychologist;counseling psychologist
counseling psychologist;clinical psychologist
The goals of psychology do NOT include:
The formal beginning of psychology is associated with:
At the heart of the humanistic perspective is the concept of:
An approach that attempts to explain behavior but is without empirical support is labeled a:
What is the relationship among psychology, pseudopsychology , and critical thinking?
Critical thinking is important in pseudopsychology but absent from psychology.
Critical thinking is important in psychology but absent from psuedopsychology.
Critical thinking is important in both psychology and pseudopsychology.
Psychology, pseudopsychology, and critical thinking are three different ways of understanding behavior.
The process psychologists use to conduct research is called:
the scientific method.
Dr. O’Connor is telling his participants before he begins the experiment that their participation is completely voluntary and that they can stop taking part at any time. Dr. O’Connor is:
debriefing his participants.
providing peer review.
performing random assignment.
obtaining informed consent.
Which descriptive research technique is CORRECTLY matched with a key advantage?
survey-allows data to be collected rapidly
case study-permits examination of relationships among variables
correlational method-examines behavior in its natural environment
Natualistic observation entails:
the systematic, detailed study of a single individual
asking a sample of individuals a set of questions
the manipulation of an independent variable
examining behavior in the setting in which it typically occurs.
Sigmund Freud based much of his theory on intensive analyses of individual patients. The psychoanalytic perspective, therefore, is built on a foundation of:
Irving has noticed a pattern: The more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method would be aimed at verifying the relationship between these two variables?
Of all the research designs, only ____________can tell us about cause and effect.
In an experiment, the process of random_________ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being in either the control group or the experimental group.
A pharmaceutical company wishes to test the efficacy of a new antidepressant using a double-blind study. Which alternative CORRECTLY describes the procedure the company would use?
The research assistants would know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient wuld also know which typeof pill he or she was taking.
The research assistants would know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient, thought, would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.
The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient, though, would know which type of pill he or she was taking.
The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.
The texbook states that “our knowlege of sexual behavior is often limited to self-reporting.” Self-report techniques are most commonly associated with _______________ research.
Brooke is a girl. Her genetic sex is:
Which statement is MOST accurate with respect to potential differences in verbal ability between boys and girls in their childhood?
There is a small difference favoring girls.
There is a large difference favoring boys.
There is a large difference favoring girls
There is a small difference favoring boys.
The term gender____________refers to the feeling or sense of being either male or female.
A(n) individual has ambiguous or inconsistent indicators of male or female in the sexual structure of organs.
According to the American Psychological Association, people whose gender expression and identity do not typically match their natal gender are called:
Which choice BEST describes the method used in Masters and Johnson’s pioneering sexual response cycle research?
Which sequence CORRECTLY orders the phases of the human sexual response cycle from first to last?
Gender-role stereotypes begin to take hold around age of ______years.
Which phase of the sexual response cycle is CORRECTLY described?
plateau-a gratifying series of rapid muscular contractions
orgasm-the body returns to a relaxed state.
resolution – a short phase in which muscles contnue to tense, breathing and heart rate increase, and blood fills the genitals.
excitement – physical changes start becoming evident.
An individual who does not feel sexually attracted to other people is:
Research suggests that the likelihood that a boy will become a gay man is_______________________associated with the number of older brothers he has.
Jennifer rarely, if ever, initiates sexual activity. She finds little pleasure or excitement in sexual activity. Jennifer suffers from _________disorder.
hypoactive sexual desire
female sexual interest/arousal
Which statement is true of genital herpes?
It can only be treated to reduce symptoms.
It is a bacterial disease.
It is more common than genital warts.
It can be cured with antibiotics.
To investigate human sexuality in general, Kinsey and his colleagues studied just over 10,000 Americans. These people constituted Kinsey’s:
Psychologists use the term________to refer to the patterns of physical, cognitive, and socioemotional change occurring throughout life.
Heredity versus environment is another way of referring to the ______________theme of debate on developmental psychology.
stages versus continuity
free will versus determinism
nature versus nurture
stability versus change
Dr. Irwin is testing the same individuals repeatedly over time as a part of a research study, while Dr. Jenner is comparing the performance of different people of various ages at the same time. Dr. Irwin is using a ______________research design; Dr. Jenner is using a ______________design.
The nucleus of a human cell contains ____________chromosomes.
23 pairs of
2 pairs of
An individual’s complete collection of genes is called his or her:
When Tara states that she is fascinated by the way the environment affects the expression of genetic characteristics, Devin suggests she explore the field of :
Dizygotic twins share _____________% of their genetic material.
A teratogen is:
an environmental agent that can produce a birth defect.
a genetic or chromosomal abnormality that may produce a developmental disorder.
any physical defect in an unborn child.
a fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division
Baby Hannah automatically turns her head in the direction of a touch on her cheek. This is the _______ reflex; it helps an infant to __________.
The field of cognitive development is greatly indebted to the seminal work of the Swiss scholar:
When an infant recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer in sight, the infant has attained what Piaget termed:
Which sequence CORRECTLY reflects the order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, from birth through adolescence?
sensorimotor>concrete operational>preoperational>formal operational
preoperational>concrete operational>preoperational>formal operational
sensorimotor>preoperational>concrete operational>formal operational
A 4-year old looks at a picture of a dragon while on the telephone with her grandfather. If Piaget’s claims of egocentrism are correct, the child is likely to
tell her grandfather to look at the dragon.
describe the dragon picture to her grandfather.
ignore her grandfather when he asks her about her day.
ask her grandfathre if he would like to see the picture the next time they are together.
Characteristic differences in behavioral patterns and emotional reactions make up a person’s:
Harry Harlow and his colleagues completed a number of studies in which baby macaque monkeys were raised with two artificial surrogate mothers. One of the mothers was made of wire, and the other was made of soft cloth. Either monkey could provide food. Harrow was interested in which of the mothers the infant monkeys would seek out when they were startled or frightened. In these studies, the dependent variable was the:
surrogate that the infant monkeys preferred when they were startled.
intensity of the stimulus used to frighten the monkey.
age of the infant monkeys at the time of the test.
length of time the infant monkeys spent exploring the cage.
Mary Ainsworth devised the Strange Situation to assess infants’:
In Erikson’s view, adolescent development is largely defined by the search for:
On Monday, Jacques announces to his parents that he wants to be called “Jack.” On Wednesday, he says he wants to drop out of school. On Friday, he says he wants to get a tatoo and become an architect. In Erikson’s terms, Jacques seems to be in the _______________________stage.
trust versus mistrust
competence versus inferiority
generativity versus stagnation
identify versus role confusion
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development MOST closely reflects:
Ainsworth attachment styles theory.
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Erikson’s stage theory of psychosocial development.
Baumrind’s parenting styles classification.
When a woman stops ovulating and becomes incapable of reproduction, she experiences:
Identify a TRUE statement about crystallized intelligence.
It is the ability to create associations among concepts.
It declines with age.
It is the knowledge one gains through learning and experience.
It remains stable until age 50.
Ideally most adults feel that their activities contribute positively to society. That is, they experience a sense of:
Which of Baumrind’s parenting styles tend to produce the most independent, competent and socially responsible children? Why?
The authoritative parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and socially responsible children. In this style, the child’s point of view is taken into account.
The permissive parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and socially responsible children. In this style, few demands are placed ont he child, allowing her to become more independent.
The authoritarian parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and sociall responsible children. In this style, the child’s behavior is strictly controlled, leading her to become more responsible.
The uninvolved parenting style tends to produce the most independent, competent, and socially responsible children. In this style, few demands are placed on the child, allowing her to become more independent.
___________is the first of Kubler-Ross’ stages.
Denise is in her mid-40s; she has never married and is childless. Her job is routine and she feels as if she hasn’t really done much to contribute to society’s future. In Erikson’s terms, Denise is experiencing:
Grace is a 19-year-old sophomore. She is living away from home for the first time and is trying to decide on a major. Grace is in a phase of life many developmental psychologists call ______________adulthood.
According to Kohlberg, decisions at the postconventional level of moral reasoning are based on:
moral expectations of society.
individual beliefs about morality.
Chemically, medicines such as morphine and codeine are related to:
The term “consciousness” refers to:
the state of being awake.
higher-level reasoning and problem solving.
one’s objective assessment of the world.
one’s awareness of oneself and the environment.
Which early psychologist believed that psychology should restrict itself to the study of observable behaviors?
One’s ability to read, understand, and —–ideally—remember a textbook paragraph is related to the area of ______________psychology.
Automatic processing is defined as:
the tendency to beocme less aware over time of unchanging stimuli.
the ability to focus attention on a small segment of information.
taking in the information with little or no conscious effort.
the failure to process objects one can clearly sense.
The cocktail-party effect is a phenomenon of:
Biological processes occurring on a cycle of approximately 24 hours are called____________.
Difficulty falling or staying asleep is referred to as:
Brody is just drifting off to sleep. An EEG would reveal an increase in ____________waves and a decrease in beta waves.
Which stage of consciousness is CORRECTLY paired with its corresponding brain wave?
waking consciousness-theta waves
Stage N1sleep-alpha waves
Stage N3sleep-delta waves
Stage Rsleep-beta waves
Dreams are MOST often reported when sleepers wake from ___________sleep.
Sudden “sleep attacks” are characteristic of a sleep disorder called:
A disturbance of non-REM sleep characterized by complex motor behavior during sleep is known as:
obstructive sleep apnea
According to the text, which sleep disorder primarily affects older men?
REM sleep behavior disorder
A sleeper’s first dream usually begins:
about 90 minutes after falling asleep.
a few minutes after falling asleep.
about halfway through the night’s sleep.
about 90 minutes before waking up.
Ariel is drinking a can of beer. Barry is smoking a cigarette. Cord is smoking a marijuana cigarette. Who is using a psychoactive drug?
Only Cord is using a psychoactive drug.
Only Ariel and Cord are using a psychoactive drug.
Only Barry and Cord are using psychoactive drugs.
All these people are using psychoactive drugs.
Benzodiazepines and barbiturates are types of:
___________________is the most widely used depressant in the United States.
More emergency room visits stem from ___________than from any other illegal drug.
Fallon, a 28-year-old woman, is a drug addict. Nonprescription use of the drug she uses is illegal; hence she does not buy it from a pharmacy. Instead, she brews it in the laboratory in her house using battery acid, drain cleaner, and over-the counter cough medicines. Given this information, identify the drug that Fallon MOST likely uses:
Which idea concerning hypnosis is FALSE?
Hypnotized people cannot exhibit superhuman strenth.
Hypnosis can promote the formation of false memories.
Hypnotized people can be made to act against their will.
Hypnosis can be used to treat chronic pain.
Tolerance is indicative of ______________dependence. Withdrawal indicates ____________dependence.
Psychologists define ___________as a relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking resulting from experience.
In the context of learning, operant conditioning is directly associated with:
the biology of an organism.
the relation between unconditioned stimuli and neutral stimuli.
rewards and punishments.
Ivan Pavlov is associated with the study of classical conditioning. This means that he studied how:
people learn by imitating others.
organisms associate two different stimuli.
people associate their behaviors with their consequences.
organisms respond to reinforcement.
A research assistant in a lab conditions dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell. During conditioning, the assistant rings a bell and then presents the animal with food. After conditioning the dog to salivate to the bell, the bell is the ________stimulus and the food is the _____________ stimulus.
Tim loves dill pickles. The sight of a jar on the supermarket shelf makes his mouth water. In the terminology of classical conditioning, the sight of the jar is a(n):
June’s cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can openr but not when a blender is used. June’s cat is demonstrating stimulus:
Which scenario describes extinction?
Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she sees a friend with whom she used to use.
Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush she did when she first started using the drug.
Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she sees a friend with whom she used to use.
Alexix uses cocaine. When she uses cocaine, her hands shake and her heart pounds.
Adam was stung by a bee. Now he is frightened not only of bees, but of all flying insects. This examples illustrates:
The mere sight of a needle is enough to make Aimee wince, as if in pain. Even being in a hospital or clinic is enough to make her squirm, probably because these settings are associated with needles. This example BEST illustrates:
higher order conditioning.
The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that the preceding behavior will be repeated is called:
Perhaps the MOST influential early research on operant conditioning was conducted by:
Using reinforcers to condition a series of small steps that get progressively closer to a target behavior is called:
higher order conditioning
In __________________reinforcement, every instance of a behavior is reinforced.
Vending machine is to _______reinforcement as slot machine is to ___________reinforcement.
In variable-ratio reinforcement, reinforcers:
change from trial to trial.
are delivered after pre-established time periods.
are delivered after a changing number of responses.
are delivered after a fluctuating period of time.
Paychecks and course grades are delivered on a _____________schedule of reinforcement.
Bandura’s “Bobo doll” experiments were intended to demonstrate:
The classic “Bobo doll” experiment by American psychologist Albert Bandura and his colleagues reveals that:
children are reluctant to adopt aggressive ways they see modeled by adults.
boys are more likely than are girls to mimic physical aggression, especially if they have observed it modeled by men.
girls are less likely than are boys to imitate verbal aggression.
girls are more likely than boys to mimic verbal aggression, especially if they have observed it modeled by men.
Voluntary behavior is to involuntary behavior as __________conditioning is to ____________conditioning.