which of the following statements represents a person’s job attitude?
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Question 1. Jason has been spending a great deal of work time talking to his co-workers about how dissatisfied he is with the job. He has spent quite a bit of time discussing unionization. Jason has also arrived at work intoxicated twice in the last week. His behavior can be classified as ________ behavior.
A. positive affect
E. organizational commitment
Answer: B. deviant
Question 2. ________ refers to evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
Answer; B. Attitude
Explanation: Attitudes are evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, about objects, people, or events. They reflect how one feels about something.
Question 3. Which of the following is true of moderating variables in attitude relationships?
A. The relationship between an attitude and a behavior is weaker if an attitude involves a direct relation to personal experience.
B. Conflicts between attitudes and behavior occur when there are no social pressures.
C. General attitudes tend to predict particular or specific behaviors.
D. Attitudes that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior.
E. Attitudes are less likely to be remembered if frequently expressed or talked about.
Answer; D. Attitudes that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior.
Question 4. With reference to cognitive dissonance, in which of the following situations is the attitude-behavior relationship most likely to be strong?
A. The behavior is affected by external factors and is not entirely under the control of the person.
B. The attitude does not reflect the person’s fundamental values.
C. The behavior is not affected by the cognitive component of the attitude.
D. The attitude refers to something with which the person has direct experience.
E. The affective component of the attitude is weak.
Answer; D. The attitude refers to something with which the person has direct experience.
Question 5. Employees with positive core self-evaluations believe in their inner worth and basic competence, and are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations. The concept of positive core self-evaluations indicates that ________.
A. personality plays a role in job satisfaction
B. pay always has a direct correlation with job satisfaction
C. job conditions have a direct influence on job satisfaction
D. employees should be regularly monitored and provided feedback
E. promotions and growth opportunities influence job satisfaction
Answer; E. promotions and growth opportunities influence job satisfaction
Question 6. Job dissatisfaction and antagonistic relationships with co-workers predict a variety of behaviors organizations find undesirable, including unionization attempts, substance abuse, undue socializing, and tardiness. These behaviors are indicators of a broader syndrome called ________.
A. positivity offset
B. employee withdrawal
C. cognitive dissonance
D. organizational commitment
E. job involvement
Answer; B. employee withdrawal
Question 8. Bryan Eusebius has a positive attitude toward his organization. He feels the management treats all employees fairly in matters concerning rewards, is understanding toward their needs and requirements, and allows them to have a voice in decisions. Bryan’s attitude toward his organization is indicative of ________.
A. perceived organizational support
B. positivity offset
C. cognitive dissonance
E. emotional contagion
Answer; A. perceived organizational support
Question 9. The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is referred to as ________.
A. job involvement
B. emotional dissonance
C. direct action
D. emotional contagion
E. job stability
Answer; A. job involvement
Question 10. Which of the following statements represents a person’s job attitude?
A. I enjoy my work because it offers me challenges and helps me hone my networking skills.
B. I believe my work has a direct impact on the processes of the organization.
C. I believe in the organization’s objectives about supporting the underprivileged.
D. I agree with the organization about its commitment to the environment.
E. I believe my work performance indicates my calibre and potential.
Answer; A. I enjoy my work because it offers me challenges and helps me hone my networking skills.
Question 11. Antonio Guillermo’s wife was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Guillermo had to take a considerable amount of time off work to care for their children, and he was late in completing his portion of a large project. Guillermo never feared that his job was in jeopardy because of his absences or his delay in completion of work. Name the major job attitude associated with the above stated example.
A. job involvement
B. psychological empowerment
C. perceived organizational support
D. organizational commitment
E. employee engagement
Answer; C. perceived organizational support
Question 12. Leon Festinger argued that ________ follow(s) ________.
A. thought processes; moods
B. emotions; attitude
C. attitudes; behavior
D. behavior; attitudes
E. conduct; feelings
Answer; C. attitudes; behavior
Question 13. ________ is moderately correlated with organizational citizenship behavior.
A. Cognitive dissonance
B. Job satisfaction
C. Emotional contagion
D. Turnover rate
Answer; B. Job satisfaction
Question 14. Sarah Mayer works as a security officer and is in charge of keeping track of who is in the office at any given time. She notices that some employees do not sign out of the office when they go out for meals, which makes it difficult to keep track of attendance of employees. Even though Mayer asked the employees repeatedly to sign out, they have not followed her advise. She now decides to report the issue to her supervisor. Which of the following components of an attitude is being demonstrated by Mayer?
Answer; A. behavioral
Question 15. Which of the following is most likely to be a characteristic of disengaged employees?
A. They proactively take up responsibilities.
B. They have a sense of passion for their work.
C. They have the lowest levels of turnover.
D. They feel a deep connection for their organization.
E. They put in time but give no attention to their work.
Answer; E. They put in time but give no attention to their work.
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Question 16. Johanna Rouse feels disheartened because she was not selected for the campaign exchange program in Amsterdam. Which component of an attitude does Rouse’s feeling represent?
Answer; C) The affective component represents the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
Question 17. Employees are most likely to perceive their organization as supportive when ________.
A. the affective component of the attitude is extremely strong
B. there is a weak relationship between their attitude and behavior
C. they have a voice in decisions
D. they experience a cognitive dissonance between their job attitude and behavior
E. they experience an emotional contagion while performing their job duties
Answer; C. they have a voice in decisions
Question 18. Which of the following statements is an example of the behavioral component of an attitude?
A. The position of a climate campaigner is challenging and interesting.
B. I think the position of a climate campaigner involves extensive travel.
C. I am thrilled to know that the human resource department is looking for a climate campaigner.
D. The position of a climate campaigner will allow me to explore my skills as a campaigner.
E. I have decided to apply for the position of a campaigner in the climate department.
Answer; E. I have decided to apply for the position of a campaigner in the climate department.
Question 19. Which of the following is most likely to be related to reduced absences and lower resignation rates?
A. high emotional contagion
B. high job involvement
C. high cognitive dissonance
D. low psychological empowerment
E. low organizational commitment
Answer; B. high job involvement
Question 20. Higher levels of job satisfaction have been reported in the United States. This may be because ________.
A. individuals in western cultures experience emotional contagion
B. individuals in western cultures are more self-critical and geared toward continuous improvement
C. there is more industrialization in western cultures
D. individuals in western cultures emphasize positive emotionsE. these are collectivist societies that do not focus on individual happiness
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Question 21. An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work he performs is known as ________.
A. emotional contagion
B. employee engagement
C. cognitive dissonance
E. positivity offset
Answer; B. employee engagement
Question 22. Why should managers be interested in their employees’ attitudes?
A. They result from behavior.
B. They give warnings of potential problems.
C. They result in cognitive dissonance.
D. They lead to self-concordance.
E. They result in emotional contagion.
Answer; B. They give warnings of potential problems.
Question 23. ________ refers to a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
A. Constructive dismissal
B. Job design
C. Job satisfaction
E. Positivity offset
Answer; C. Job satisfaction
Question 24. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true about the major job attitudes?
A. They increase cognitive dissonance.
B. They are highly distinct from one another.
C. They tend to overlap one another.
D. They are generally resistant to change.
E. They are not correlated to one another.
Answer; C. They tend to overlap one another.
Question 25. The statement, “A person who eats meat and then fights for animal rights demonstrates double standards” is an evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the ________ component of an attitude.
Answer; D. cognitive
Question 26. A satisfied workforce does not guarantee successful organizational performance. In order to improve organizational effectiveness, managers ________.
A. must try to improve employee attitudes
B. must use 360 degrees appraisal procedures
C. must offer periodic salary increments
D. must provide classroom training
E. must make jobs easier and targets achievable
Answer; A. must try to improve employee attitudes
Question 27. In Indonesia, comfortable living occurs at about $30,000. Based on the measurement of comfortable living, which of the following is most likely to be true?
A. People’s earnings have no relation to their job satisfaction if they earn $25,000.
B. People earning approximately $25,000 are content with their jobs.
C. People earning below $30,000 experience a positive correlation between pay and job satisfaction.
D. People earning below $30,000 are as happy with jobs as those earning $35,000.
E. People earning $50,000 have higher levels of job satisfaction than those earning $40,000.
Answer; C. People earning below $30,000 experience a positive correlation between pay and job satisfaction.
Question 28. Which of the following is true about the correlation between salary and job satisfaction?
A. Pay does not play a critical role in job satisfaction when an individual reaches a level of comfortable living.
B. Financial perks and benefits always create job satisfaction irrespective of standards of living.
C. High salary level always creates organizational commitment.
D. Pay is not related to job satisfaction for employees in underdeveloped countries.
E. Salary and perks do not have a role in overall happiness of employees from poor countries.
Answer; A. Pay does not play a critical role in job satisfaction when an individual reaches a level of comfortable living.
Question 29. Sonia works as a lab research assistant at Frost Labs which conducts trials for cosmetic products such as sprays, dyes, ointments, soaps, and the like. She joined the firm right out of college and has been working for them for almost two years now.Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument that Sonia is experiencing cognitive dissonance?
A. She majored in pharmacology as part of her Masters program in college.
B. She believes that testing products on animals is an unethical practice.
C. She is confounded by the fact that the cosmetic industry rakes in almost $7 billion annually.
D. She recently received a positive performance review from her supervisor.
E. She believes that cosmetics help boost women’s self-confidence.
Answer; B. She believes that testing products on animals is an unethical practice.
Question 30. Henry Hutchins is discontent with his job but believes that his supervisor is a good man who will do the needful to reduce his dissatisfaction with the job. He has decided to just wait and give his supervisor some time until conditions improve. Henry’s response to this problem is termed as ________.
Answer; C. loyalty
Question 31. Susan Daniels works for an event management company and is discontent with her job because she was passed over for a promotion. She has now composed a list of concerns and plans to discuss the issue with her supervisor. Daniels’ response to the problem is referred to as ________.
Answer; C. voice
Question 32. The performance variables productivity, absenteeism, and turnover are generally considered a part of the ________ behaviors in the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework.
A. neglect and loyalty
B. voice and neglect
C. exit and neglect
D. voice and exit
E. loyalty and voice
Answer; C. exit and neglect
Explanation: In the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework, the exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables — productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
Question 33. Kimberley Mayfield recently evaluated her subordinate’s progress report. She now plans to inform her about the objectives she did not achieve and how she can perform better. By doing this, Mayfield will be demonstrating the ________ component of an attitude.
Answer; B) behavioral
Explanation; The behavioral component of an attitude describes an intention to behave in a certain !a% toward someone or something. By planning to inform her subordinate of her performance, Mayfield is demonstrating the behavioral component of attitude.
Question 34. Maria Womack who worked for a bank in Michigan was dissatisfied with the way her manager treated her. She is planning to quit her job and find a new position with another competitor bank. Her action represents the ________ response.
Answer; B. exit
Explanation: The exit response according to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework, directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning.
Question 35. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework aids in understanding the consequences of ________.
B. high employee engagement
C. regular feedback
D. emotional contagion
E. increasing growth opportunities
Answer; A. dissatisfaction
Question 36. Dennis Galvan works as a campaigner at Green Earth, an environmental organization. Every month, his organization arranges a team outing where they indulge in football and other team building activities. The human resource department ensures that there are regular interactions between employees through team dinners and cultural events. According to the information given in this case, which of the following is most likely to be the reason of Galvan’s high-level of satisfaction toward his job?
A. constructive dismissal
B. profile of work
C. social context
D. promotion and growth
E. salary packaging
Answer; C. social context
Question 37. Organizational commitment is defined as ________.
A. the degree to which employees identify with the organization they work for and its goals
B. the employee’s degree of disagreement or differential opinions about organizational practices
C. the degree to which employees believe their work impacts their organization significantly
D. the state of discord caused by opposition of values between people working together
E. the degree to which an employee’s sense of cognitive dissonance is related to their job
Answer; A. the degree to which employees identify with the organization they work for and its goals
Question 38. To get his company through some hard economic times, Ben’s working hours have just been reduced from 40 hours a week to 33. Ben is upset about the reduction in time and pay, but he shows up at work every morning and is willing to patiently wait until economic times improve, and he can go back to working full time. Which of the following types of response is being displayed by Ben?
Answer; A. loyalty
Question 39. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding cognitive dissonance?
A. High dissonance is accompanied by high rewards.
B. People are more motivated to reduce dissonance when attitudes are important.
C. People are less inspired to reduce dissonance when it is within their control.
D. The desire to reduce dissonance is not affected by moods and emotions.
E. People are less likely to reduce dissonance when the behavior is crucial.
Answer; B. People are more motivated to reduce dissonance when attitudes are important.
Explanation; Festinger argued that people will be more motivated to reduce dissonance when the attitudes or behavior are important or when they believe the dissonance is due to something they can control.
Question 40. Which of the following actions best represents Kelly’s high job involvement?
A. Kelly wants to continue working for the organization because many of her college friends are working there.
B. Kelly always complains about her work to her colleagues.
C. Kelly dislikes the unethical practices followed by her employer.
D. Kelly shares the organization’s vision of supporting renewable energy.
E. Kelly actively takes part in team activities and proactively takes up additional job responsibilities.
Answer; E. Kelly actively takes part in team activities and proactively takes up additional job responsibilities.
Explanation; Job involvement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do.
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