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PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 1 Forum

Below you will find the topic instructions for this forum. General posting requirements can be accessed via clicking “View Full Description” under each Forum heading.

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Our Week 1 Forum topic has two parts.

Part I

Introduce yourself to the class.

Who are you?

Do you prefer to be called by a particular name?

Where are you from and where are you currently living?

What is your interest in the course?

Identify three learning goals you want to achieve in completing PSYC 300.

Part I should be a maximum of 150 words.

Part II

Respond to the forum question below.

Imagine that you have been a member of a research team conducting an Institution Review Board (IRB) approved study of interpersonal aggression among preschoolers for more than a year. In that time, your team has repeatedly employed a consistent set of procedures to study preschoolers’ behaviors. The procedures involve volunteer mothers bringing their children to your university’s child development lab for an observed “play session”. So far your young study subjects have been fairly racially homogenous (alike), from middle-class families and recruited (via contact with their parents) from a university preschool, affluent parts of town day-care centers, and a pre-kindergarten program being offered in the neighborhood school district. This means that, much to your frustration, you can’t claim that your study results are useful in understanding the behaviors of different race/ethnicity preschoolers and those from varying socio-economic status (SES) and education level families.

But wait…now you have learned that a friend of a friend can help you gain research access to a group of unusually racially diverse preschoolers from varying SES and education backgrounds, if you can do observations of these children really soon and at their day care facility. Several of your team members want to pursue this option and move on it quickly, arguing that there is no time to prepare a formal research proposal before embarking on the study in a new setting. “Besides the time issue,” they argue, “except for happening in a different place, our procedures should go just like all the others we’ve done and we already had them reviewed and approved by the IRB.”

Discuss how your team would be leaving itself open to problems by moving ahead with no revised study formal proposal.

Explain two problems you might encounter with this approach.

Then, provide a possible solution for each of the problems you have listed.

Part II should be a minimum of 150 words.

Place both Part 1 and Part 2 in a single post, labeling each with headings accordingly so everyone can easily see where Part 1 of your post ends and Part 2 begins.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 2 Forum

Respond to all three questions below.

1. Imagine you are conducting a literature review in preparation for a study of expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and 29. Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” you generate a lengthy list of research articles. You decide to shorten the list by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research journals and to only include the remaining articles in your literature review. What is gained and lost by using that approach. Is it an appropriate one for a scholarly literature review?

2. While reading a literature review written by a novice researcher in your field, you notice that the researcher seems to have relied heavily oin the Internet in preparing the review. Your hunch is supported when you glance at the reference page and find a long list of web addresses. What goes through your mind regarding the quality and adequacy of the literature review in this situation?

3. Describe two different problems related to research design that are commonly encountered when doing research and for each explain how a complete and detailed research proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem.

Label each answer with the corresponding number accordingly so everyone can easily see where the answer to question 1 of your post ends and answers to questions 2 and 3 begin.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 3 Forum

Briefly describe how quantitative and qualitative research are each valuable in the field of psychology.

In the APUS Online Library, locate a journal article that used a qualitative research approach.

Next, summarize the article you have chosen for this Forum discussion.

Then, evaluate whether the research method was the best way to study the given topic. Explain why or why not.

Finally, describe how you would study your chosen topic in a qualitative way and how you would study it in a quantitative way.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 4 Forum

The study of how ideas developed over time is a type of conceptual or psychological historical research.

Identify a key concept within the field of psychology and describe in detail the types of primary sources you could use to understand its history, explaining what each source might add to the study.

Then, explain why conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents, taking notes, and organizing those notes.

Provide two examples to illustrate your point.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 5 Forum

Explain three circumstances where a researcher would choose a longitudinal study over a cross-sectional study.

Identify two advantages and two disadvantages of a longitudinal study and a cross-sectional study, giving examples of each.

Then, provide a specific example of a question that could be addressed with a longitudinal study and explain why that developmental design is preferred.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 6 Forum

Explain two advantages and two disadvantages of conducting a mixed-methods study (rather than two or more different studies), to address a single research question.

Then discuss why mixed-methods studies may require special consideration of the ethics involved in conducting the study.

Explain, using an example to support your claims.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 7 Forum

Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project.

Explain two reasons why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.

Then, discuss two benefits of examining and understanding the intrinsic meaning of the data.

Lastly, explain three disadvantages of going too far beyond the scope of the data.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 8 Forum

For the past seven weeks, we have been thinking about research methods in psychology and the important role they play in understanding the world around us. Reflect on what you have learned in responding to the following:

What impact might research methods have on the future of the field of psychology?

What is the most important concept you have learned in our time together in class?

As you consider your personal narrative, what tools and insights can you apply from the course to become a more educated consumer of psychological research in your daily life?

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week Three Research Study Proposal I

In this class you will complete a Research Study Proposal to investigate a social-psychological issue to allow you to put into practice what you have learned throughout this course by designing a hypothetical research study proposal.

The Research Study Proposal will be divided into two assignments: Research Study Proposal Part I and l Research Study Proposal Part II.

The topic of your research study should be on a social-psychological issue. Social Psychology focuses on the impact of social environments on individuals or groups.

Two examples of social psychology focused studies are:

A study that researches the impact of public awareness ad campaigns on public attitudes toward the severely mental ill

A study comparing types school administrator response to reports of bullying and victims’ willingness to report instances of bullying to their parents.

The Research Study Proposal Part I must include the four components below. You will use these components as subheadings for four sections in your paper

1. Proposed Topic: Describe the study’s topic and focus (1 page minimum)

2. Hypothesis (can be in a form of question or stating the Ho and Ha)

3. Participants. Describe participant demographics (race, gender, age, religion, SES, area of the country in which they live, etc.), the process for selecting/recruiting them, and the rational for selecting them (1/2 page minimum)

4. Sampling Method: Discuss the proposed sampling method and the rational for selecting it (1 page minimum)

Your paper must also:

Be a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 4 full pages, size 12 font, Times New Roman, double spaced with 1 inch margins, NOT including the Title and References pages.

Be in APA format, including a title page and reference page.

Be proofread and contain few to no grammar errors, misspellings, incorrect APA formatting, or typographical errors.

Incorporate a minimum of three supportive scholarly citations and references to support content and conclusions.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week Six Research Study Proposal II

Research Study Proposal Part I and Research Study Proposal Part II are one large assignment divided into two parts. This is the second part of your Research Study Proposal, which builds upon the work you completed in Part I.

Using the same topic you selected for Part I of your proposal, discuss all components denoted below. Use each numbered item as a required subheading in your paper.

1. Data Collection Procedures (Describe the step-by-step process you would use to collect your data?) (1 page minimum).

2. Data Analysis (Select two types of statistics you would use to analyze gathered data; not stats formula details, but which stats you would use) (1 page minimum).

3. Contribution to the Field (explain the benefits to individuals, groups and society as a whole of the study results. Example: Using the first hypothetical social psychology study from Part I, if we find that public awareness ads are associated with improved changes in attitudes toward the severely mentally ill might we use such study results as a means of advocating for Federal funding for expanding advertising efforts; or if study results show no to little association between ads and public attitude changes, might we better serve the severely ill by pursuing other means of reducing stigma? (1 page minimum).

4. Research Limitations (1/2 page minimum). Discuss limitations that you foresee in Part I and Part II of your Research Study Proposal. It may be helpful to review your Instructor feedback for Part I of this assignment.

5. Discussion (1/2 page minimum). Discuss and reflect on your conclusions of the research process and this assignment in its entirety.

The Research Study Proposal Part II must:

Use each numbered item as a required subheading in your paper.

Be a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 5 full pages, size 12 font, Times New Roman, double spaced with 1 inch margins, NOT including the Title and References pages.

Be in APA format, including a title page and reference page.

Be proofread and contain few to no grammar errors, misspellings, incorrect APA formatting, or typographical errors.

Incorporate a minimum of three supportive scholarly citations and references to support content and conclusions.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 1 Quiz Chapter 1

Question 1

Some people are surprised to learn that psychology is a

A. subject of study.

B. body of existing information.

C. science.

D. consideration of the broader research community.

Question 2

The general scientific approach has three fundamental features. The first feature is

A. empirical questioning.

B. research question development.

C. systematic empiricism.

D. hypothesis development.

Question 3

______ is an essential feature of science.

A. Collaboration

B. Problem solving

C. Questions which lead to data collection which leads to interpretations

D. Steps that should be followed in order

Question 4

_______ refers to activities and beliefs that are claimed to be scientific by their proponents.

A. Science

B. Pseudoscience

C. Interpretation

D. Insight

Question 5

Rebirthing therapy, is an example of

A. infantilism.

B. past-life regression.

C. gender-bending.

D. pseudoscientific psychotherapies.

Question 6

Empiricism

A. refers to the groups for the course of the project and take notes about their social interactions and dialogues.

B. refers to unit test scores of those who were placed in cooperative groups and those who were not.

C. refers to focus groups with college students about the types of cooperative learning they have encountered in their schooling.

D. refers to learning based on observation.

Question 7

Scientific claims must be

A. falsifiable.

B. tested.

C. products of experimentation.

D. true.

Question 8

The third feature of science is that it creates

A. empirical questions.

B. public knowledge.

C. positivism.

D. postpositivism.

Question 9

______ allows science to be self-correcting.

A. Scientific knowledge

B. Publicly-funded research

C. Publication

D. Statistical tests

Question 10

______ the idea that pyramids in general have healing and other special powers.

A. Cryptozoology

B. Pyramidology

C. Psychic powers

D. Pseudoscience

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 2 Quiz Chapter 2

Question 1

______ a quality, such as chosen major, and is typically measured by assigning a category label to each individual.

A. A categorical variable is

B. A quantitative variable

C. A variable

D. A random sampling

Question 2

_____ is a sample which consists of individuals who happen to be nearby and willing to participate.

A. A convenience sampling

B. A true sample

C. A random sampling

D. A simple sampling

Question 3

There is a _________ between two variables when the average score on one differs

systematically across the levels of the other

A. statistical relationship

B. differences between groups

C. operational definition

D. correlation

Question 4

Good research must begin with a good ________.

A. research question

B. sample

C. population sample

D. group of participants

Question 5 of 10 0.0/ 3.0 Points

An important criterion for evaluating research questions is ______.

A. prior knowledge

B. statistical data

C. feasibility

D. previous research

Question 6 of 10 0.0/ 3.0 Points

It is important to evaluate how ______ a research question is before designing a study.

A. feasible

B. true

C. interesting

D. likely

Question 7

_______ describe one or more new empirical studies conducted by the authors.

A. Review articles

B. professional journals

C. empirical research reports

D. theoretical articles.

Question 8 of 10 0.0/ 3.0 Points

Research questions in psychology are about _____.

A. relationships.

B. variables.

C. means.

D. correlation.

Question 9

______ does not imply ______.

A. Pearson’s r, statistical relationship

B. correlation, causation

C. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.

D. independent variable, dependent variable

Question 10

A _______ is one in which higher scores on one variable tend to be associated with lower scores on the other.

A. scatterplot

B. positive relationship

C. negative relationship

D. Pearson’s r

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Midterm Exam – Week 4

Question 1

Professor Adams is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban”, “suburban”, or “rural” setting. This is an example of a/an:

A. nominal scale

B. ordinal scale

C. interval scale

D. ration scale

Question 2

Which of the following represents a null hypothesis?

A. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.

B. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.

C. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?

D. None of the above

Question 3

Which of the following represents a research hypothesis?

A. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.

B. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.

C. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?

D. None of the above

Question 4

In a _______, each participant is tested under all conditions.

A. carryover effect

B. practice effect

C. within-subjects experiment

D. fatigue effect

Question 5

The ______ of psychology—the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems—is one important application of the scientific discipline of psychology.

A. clinical practice

B. treatment field

C. addiction field

D. mental health field

Question 6

________ is written by a single author or a small group of authors and usually gives a coherent presentation of a topic much like an extended review article. Edited volumes have an editor or a small group of editors who recruit many authors to write separate chapters on different aspects of the same topic.

A. A professional journal

B. A scholarly book

C. A monograph

D. An edited volume

Question 7

When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that:

A. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.

B. another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.

C. a well-designed research project could be carried out by a specific individual conducting research in the same field.

D. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

Question 8

Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes:

A. primary data

B. secondary data

C. informal data

D. nonempirical data

Question 9

Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving. For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:

A. hearsay data

B. secondary data

C. informal data

D. primary data

Question 10

Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.

A. construct validity

B. content validity

C. criterion validity

D. face validity

Question 11

A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.

A. predictive validity

B. content validity

C. criterion validity

D. face validity

Question 12

A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.

A. criterion validity

B. content validity

C. face validity

D. predictive validity

Question 13

Don and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. This is an example of ______ reliability.

A. interrater

B. internal consistency

C. equivalent form

D. test-retest

Question 14

Dr. Stevens is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine. Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine. This is an indication of good ______ reliability.

A. interrater

B. internal consistency

C. equivalent form

D. test-retest

Question 15

Professor Page is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May. By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.

A. interrater

B. internal consistency

C. equivalent form

D. test-retest

Question 16

Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.

A. quantitative

B. qualitative

Question 17

Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.” You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______ study.

A. quantitative

B. qualitative

Question 18

Scientific research is relevant to _______ because it provides detailed and accurate knowledge about psychological problems and establishes whether treatments are effective.

A. psychology

B. addiction

C. clinical practice

D. professors

Question 19

______ in psychology is conducted primarily for the sake of achieving a more detailed and accurate understanding of human behavior, without necessarily trying to address any particular practical problem.

A. Statistical research

B. Qualitative research

C. Basic research

D. Applied research

Question 20

In ______ research proposal(s), specific hypotheses regarding findings are often stated.

A. both quantitative and qualitative

B. neither quantitative and qualitative

C. a quantitative

D. a qualitative

Question 21

Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.

Question 22

Concepts, ideas, opinions, feelings, and other intangible entities are often labeled as “insubstantial phenomena.” Select one of the following 3 phenomena that would be considered insubstantial, and explain two different ways — one qualitative and one quantitative — that you might measure it: a) the closeness of undergraduates’ social network friends; b) the “campus climate” at your university; c) “irrational exuberance” about the stock market.

Question 23

In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal

Question 24

Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree. Explain at least two personal benefits that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation. Then explain at least two societal benefits that follow from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 5 Quiz Chapters 4 and 9

Question 1

Scientists distinguish between ______, which are their systematic observations, and theories, which are their explanations or interpretations of phenomena.

A. explanations

B. phenomena

C. interpretations

D. scientific theories

Question 2

Researchers generally consider multiple ______ for any set of phenomena.

A. questions

B. theories

C. reasons

D. hypotheses

Question 3

______ which specify a series of stages that people pass through as they develop or adapt to their environment.

A. Theoretical approach

B. Functional theories

C. Mechanistic theories

D. Stage theories,

Question 4

Psychologists use the _________ method.

A. scientific

B. research

C. pass-fail

D. hypothetico-deductive

Question 5

There are ___ distinct criteria by which researchers evaluate their measures.

A. two

B. four

C. six

D. eight

Question 6

Among survey methods, ________ generally generate the highest response rate.

A. telephone interviews

B. face-to-face interviews

C. interviews using video-conferencing

D. online surveys

Question 7

Survey research usually involves _____ sampling, in which each member of the population has a known probability of being selected for the sample.

A. cross-sectional

B. population

C. probability

D. nested

Question 8

______ occurs when a sample is selected in such a way that it is not representative of the population and therefore produces inaccurate results.

A. Static-group bias

B. Sampling bias

C. Post-test bias

D. Experimental bias

Question 9

______ items are either open-ended or closed-ended.

A. Data analysis

B. Data collection

C. Researcher questions

D. Survey questionnaire

Question 10

______ research is a quantitative approach that features the use of self-report measures on carefully selected samples.

A. Survey

B. Population

C. Independent

D. Variable

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Week 7 Quiz Chapters 12 and 13

Question 1

______ refers to a set of techniques for summarizing and displaying data.

A. A distribution

B. A histogram

C. An outlier

D. Descriptive statistics

Question 2

An alternative to the mean is the ______.

A. mode

B. median

C. tendency

D. central tendency

Question 3

The _______ of a distribution is the extent to which the scores vary around their central tendency.

A. range

B. frequency

C. standard deviation

D. variability

Question 4

The location of a score within its distribution can be described using percentile ranks or _____.

A. t scores

B. central tendency

C. standard deviation

D. z scores

Question 5

It is also important to be able to describe the strength of a statistical relationship, which is often referred to as the ______.

A. Cohen’s d

B. standard deviation

C. correlation

D. effect size

Question 6 of 10 0.0/ 3.0 Points

To compare two means, the most common null hypothesis test is the _______.

A. Pearson’s r

B. factorial ANOVA

C. ANOVA

D. t test

Question 7

A ______ is a statistic that is computed only to help find the p value

A. t test

B. one-sample t test

C. critical value

D. test statistic

Question 8 of 10 0.0/ 3.0 Points

Statistical significance is not the same as _____ or ______.

A. probability, sampling size

B. relationship strength, importance

C. probability, outliers

D. null hypothesis, statistical relationship

Question 9

_____ testing is a formal approach to deciding whether a statistical relationship in a sample reflects a real relationship in the population or is just due to chance.

A. Population

B. Null hypothesis

C. Sampling

D. Hypothesis

Question 10

The corresponding values in the population are called ____.

A. outliers

B. errors

C. sampling errors

D. parameters

PSYC300 Research Methods in Psychology

Final Exam – Week 8

Question 1

Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using:

A. purposive sampling.

B. proportional stratified sampling.

C. systematic sampling.

D. stratified random sampling.

Question 2

Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes. Danny is using:

A. simple random sampling.

B. cluster sampling.

C. convenience sampling.

D. systematic sampling.

Question 3

Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the:

A. research hypothesis

B. probability level

C. significant level

D. null hypothesis

Question 4

“There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”

A. dependent variable.

B. independent variable.

C. confounding variable.

D. constant.

Question 5

“There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”

During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.

A. independent variable.

B. dependent variable.

C. constant.

D. confounding variable.

Question 6

Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:

A. placebo group.

B. treatment group.

C. sample.

D. control group.

Question 7

Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method for Unit 1 of the course. Then all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2. He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams. This study employs

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